University of Hawaii Neuroscience and MRI Research Program

Research Team

Linda Chang, M.D.

Curriculum Vitae

Professor of Medicine
Program Director, Neuroscience and MR Research

Department of Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, 1356 Lusitana Street, University Tower, 7th Floor, Honolulu, HI 96813

Email: lchang -AT- hawaii -DOT- edu
Phone: (808) 586-7467 or (808) 691-8969
Fax: (808) 586-7486


B.S. 1981 Biochemistry 
University of Maryland, College Park, MD
M.S. 1982 Physiology and Biophysics
Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.
M.D. 1986 Georgetown University, School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.
Internship 1986-87 Internal Medicine
Los Angeles County/USC Medical Center
University of Souther California, Los Angeles, CA
Residency 1987-90 Neurology
University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA
Neuromuscular diseases and Electrophysiology
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA
1991-92 Research in Neuroimaging with SPECT, MRI and MR Spectroscopy (MRS) in Dementia
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA

Medical Licensures

09/04 - 08/31/13 Hawaii State Narcotics Registration No. E07073
NPI# 1366523953
12/04 - 01/31/14 Hawaii – MD-12971
08/01 - 07/05 New York - 221122-1
07/87 - 08/31/14 DEA - BC1178955
07/87 - 06/05 California - G061096

Board Certification

1994 Neurology
American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology - No. 39457
1997 Electrophysiology/EMG
American Board of Electrodiagnostic Medicine - No. 2216

Professional Experiences

2013-present President, Hawaii Neurological Society (a Statewide society for all Neurologists in Hawai`i)
2008-present Neurologist, Faculty Practice at the University Clinical Education Research Associates (UCERA)
2005-present Neurologist, The Queen’s Medical Center – Attending and Teaching at the Queen Emma Clinic
2004-present Professor of Medicine (tenured since 2006)
University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI

Co-Director, UH-MR Research Center, at The Queen's Medical Center.
2000-2004 Chair, Scientist
Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY
1999-2000 Associate Professor of Neuroloogy
UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA
1992-1999 Assistant Professor of Neuroloogy
UCLA School of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA
1991-1992 Clinical Instructor/Research Associate
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA

Current Society Memberships

American Academy of Neurology (AAN), Member 1989-2003; Fellow Member 2003-present
International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), Member 1993-2008, Elected Fellow 2008-present, Scientific Program Committee member, 2000-2002; Board of Trustee, 2001-2004; Electronic Education Committee, ISMRM (2001-2002); Publication Committee, ISMRM (2002-2004)
College of Problems in Drug Dependence (CPDD), Member, 1999 - present
American Neurological Association (ANA), Elected Member, 2003 - present
American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), Elected Member 2005-present
Hawaii Neurological Society (HNS), Member (2007-present), Treasurer (2008-2010), President (2013-2014)
Society for Neuroscience (SFN), Member, 2007-present

Past Society Memberships

American Medical Association (AMA), Member, 1985 - 1999
Los Angeles Neurological Society, Member 1995 - 2000, Board of Directors 1997-2000; Secretary & Treasurer 1998, 1999, 2000
American Society of Neuroimaging (ASN), Member, 1998-2000
California Association of Neurologists, Member, 1998 - 2000
International Society of Neuroimaging in Psychiatry (ISNP), Member, 2002-2004
American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AAEM), Fellow Member, 1997-2007
International Society of Neurovirology, Member, 2000-2002, 2007
Society of Neuro-Immune Pharmacology (SNIP), Founding Member, 2001-2013


Best Doctors of Hawai`i 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
The Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology Wybran Award (For Extraordinary Contributions that Help to Integrate the Fields of Neuroimmunology, Drugs of Abuse, and Immunity to Infection) April 2010
Elected Fellow, International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, May 2008
Mid-Career Physician Scientist Award (K24), NIDA, NIH – 2002-2015 (renewed for another 5-years)
Woman in Science Award, Town of Brookhaven, New York, March, 2002
Patient Care Leader Award at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center – March, 1999
Richard E. Weitzman Award in Biomedical Research – An Annual Young Investigator Research Award at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1998
Mentored Clinician Scientist Development Award (K-20), NIDA, NIH – 1995 – 2001
Clinical Associate Physician (CAP) Award, NCRR, NIH – 1993-1995
Augustus Rose Fellowship from French Foundation for Alzheimer Research - 1992-1995
Rock Sleyster Memorial Scholarship Award - for special promise in Psychiatry, American Medical Association, 1985
Research Award - Department of Chemistry, Honors Program, University of Maryland, 1981

Editorial Board Member

Assistant Editor for Neurobase (1995 - 2004)
Editorial Board, Journal of Addiction Science and Clinical Practice (formerly named Science Practice and Perspectives, a NIDA peer-reviewed publication, 2004-2009)
Editorial Board and Section Editor for Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology (2006-present)
Editorial Board, Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging (2007-present)
Editorial Board, Journal of Magnetic Resonance in Imaging (2007-present)
Editorial Board, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2008-2013)

Selected Publications

                              - Drug Abuse Related

Panee J, Pang X, Munsaka S, Berry MJ, Chang L. Association of Depressive Symptoms and CSF Oxidative Stress Markers in Independent or Co-Morbid HIV and Methamphetamine Use Disorders. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology (In press)
Ling W, Chang L, Hillhouse M, Ang A, Striebel J, Jenkins J, Hernandez J, Olaer M, Mooney L, Reed S, Fukaya E, Kogachi S, Alicata D, Holmes N and Esagoff A. Sustained-Release Methylphenidate in a Randomized Trial of Treatment of Methamphetamine Use Disorder. Addiction 2014 Sep;109(9):1489-500. doi: 10.1111/add.12608. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PMID:24825486 PMCID: PMC4127124
Chang L, Cloak CC, Jiang CS, Hoo A, Hernandez AB, Ernst TM. Lower Glial Metabolite Levels in Brains of Young Children with Prenatal Nicotine Exposure. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology. 2012 Mar;7(1):243-52. Epub 2011 Sep 13. PMID: 21912896  PMCID: PMC3821865
King GR, Ernst T, Deng W, Stenger VA, Gonzales R, Nakama H, Chang L. The Effects of Chronic Active Cannabis Use on Visuomotor Integration in Relation to Brain Activation and Cortisol Levels. The Journal of Neuroscience 7 December 2011, 31(49): 17923-17931; doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4148-11.2011
Cloak CC, Alicata D, Chang L, Andrew-Shigaki B, Ernst T. Age and sex effects levels of choline compounds in the anterior cingulate cortex of adolescent methamphetamine users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011 Dec 15;119(3):207-15. Epub 2011 Jul 19. PMID: 21775074 PMCID: PMC3214603
Nakama H, Chang L, Fein G, Shimotsu R, Jiang C, Ernst T. Methamphetamine users show greater than normal age-related cortical gray matter loss. Addiction 2011 Aug;106(8):1474-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03433.x. Epub 2011 May 12. PMID: 21438934
King G, Alicata D, Cloak C, Chang L. Neuropsychological Deficits in Adolescent Methamphetamine Users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Oct;212(2):243-9. Epub 2010 Jul 17, PMID: 20640405   PMCID:PMC2939179
King G, Alicata D, Cloak C, Chang L. Psychiatric Symptoms and HPA Axis Function in Adolescent Methamphetamine Users. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2010 Dec;5(4):582-91. Epub 2010 Apr 1. PMID: 20358305 PMCID: PMC2974768
Alicata DA, Chang L, Cloak C, Abe K, and Ernst T. Higher Diffusion in Striatum and Lower Fractional Anisotropy in White Matter of Methamphetamine Users. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2009; Oct 30;174(1):1-8. Epub 2009 Sep 26. PMID: 19782540   PMCID: PMC2925833
Chang L, Cloak C, Jiang CS, Farnham S, Tokeshi B, Hedemark B, Smith L, and Ernst T. Altered Neurometabolites and Motor Integration in the Brains of Children Exposed to Methamphetamine prenatally. Neuroimage 2009; 48: 391-397. Epub Jul 5. PMID: 19576287 NIHMS 135197   PMCID:PMC3142567
Cloak C, Ernst T, Fuiji L, Hedemark B, Chang L. Lower Diffusion in White Matter of Children with Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure. Neurology Jun 16;72(24):2068-75. Epub 2009 Apr 15. PMCID: PMC2697962
Nakama H, Chang L, Cloak C, Haning W. Association between psychiatric symptoms and craving in methamphetamine users. American Journal on Addictions 2008;Sep-Oct;17(5):441-6. PMID: 18770088  PMCID: PMC2693368
Ernst T and Chang L. Adaptation of brain glutamate plus glutamine during abstinence from chronic methamphetamine use. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2008; Sep;3(3):165-72; Epub2008 Jun 3. PMID:18521756   PMCID: PMC2575014
Chang L and Chronicle E. Functional imaging studies of cannabis users. The Neuroscientist 2007 October;13(5):422-432. PMID:17901252
Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Kassed C, Chang L. Imaging the addicted human brain.Science, Practice and Perspectives 2007; Apr;3(2):4-16. PMID:17514067
Chang L, Alicata D, Ernst T, Volkow N. Structural and metabolic brain changes in the striatum of human methamphetamine users. Addiction 2007;102(suppl 1):16-32.
Goldstein RZ, Alia-Klein N, Tomasi D, Zhang L, Cottone LA, Maloney T, Telang F, Caparelli EC, Chang L, Ernst T, Samaras D, NK Squires, Volkow ND. Is decreased prefrontal cortical sensitivity associated with impaired motivation and self control in cocaine addiction? American Journal of Psychiatry 2007;164:43-51. PMID:17202543
Chang L, Yakupov R, Cloak C, Ernst T. Marijuana use is associated with a reorganized visual attention network and cerebellar hypoactivity. Brain 2006 Epub Apr 3; May;129(Pt 5):1096-112. PMID:16585053
Chang L, Haning WF. Insights from recent positron emission tomographic studies of drug abuse and dependence. Current Opinions in Psychiatry 2006 May;19(3):246-252. PMID:16612209
Chang L, Cloak C, Patterson K, Grob C, Miller EN, and Ernst T. Enlarged Striatum in Abstinent Methamphetamine Abusers: A Possible Compensatory Response. Biological Psychiatry 2005 June:57:967-974. PMID:15860336
Chang L, Smith L, LoPresti C, Yonekura ML, Kuo J, Walot I, Ernst T. Decreased Subcortical Brain Volumes And Neuropsychological Deficits In Children Exposed To Methamphetamine In Utero. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 132(12);15 December 2004:95-106.
Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Chang L, Fowler JS, Franceschi D, Sedler M, Miller E, Robert Hitzemann R, Zhu W, Logan J, Ma Y. Incomplete Recovery of Brain Metabolism in Methamphetamine Abusers with Protracted Abstinence. American Journal of Psychiatry 2004 (Feb);161:242-248.  PMID:14754772
Back C, Boone K, Chang L, Grob C, Lee A, Nations H., Poland R. Neuropsychological effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, or "Ecstasy") in recreational users. The Clinical Psychologist 2003;17(4):446-459.
Goldstein RZ, Volkow ND, Chang L, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Depue RA, Gur RC. The Orbitofrontal Cortex in Methamphetamine Addiction: Involvement in Fear. NeuroReport Dec 13, 2002;13(17):1-5. PMID:12488806 PMCID: PMC1201127
Chang L, Ernst T, Speck O, Patel H, DeSilva M, Leonido-Yee M, Miller E. Perfusion MRI Abnormalities and Computerized Cognitive Deficits in Abstinent Methamphetamine Users. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2002 Jun 15;114(2):65-79.
Volkow ND, Chang L, Wang G-J, Fowler JS, Franceschi, D, Sedler M, Gatley SJ, Miller E., Hitzemann R, Ding Y-S, Logan J. Loss of dopamine transporters in methamphetamine abusers recovers with protracted abstinence.  Journal of Neuroscience 2001 Dec 1;21(23):9414-8. PMID:11717374
Volkow N, Chang L, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Ding YS, Sedler M, Logan J, Franceschi D, Gatley J, Hitzemann R, Gifford A, Wong C, Pappas N. Low level of brain dopamine d(2) receptors in methamphetamine abusers: association with metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001 Dec;158(12):2015-21 .PMID:11729018
Smith L, Chang L, Yonekura ML, Osborne D, Grob C, Ernst T. Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in children exposed to methamphetamine in utero. Neurology 2001;57(2):255-260. PMID:19576287
Volkow N, Chang L, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Franceschi D, Sedler MJ, Gatley SJ, Hitzemann R, Ding YS, Wong C, Logan J. Higher Cortical and Lower Subcortical Metabolism in Detoxified Methamphetamine Abusers. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001;158(3):383-389. PMID:11229978
Volkow N, Chang L, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Leonido-Yee M, Franceschi D, Sedler MJ, Gatley SJ, Hitzemann R, Ding YS, Logan J, Wong C, Miller EN. Association of Dopamine Transporter Reduction with Psychomotor Impairment in Methamphetamine Abusers. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001;158:377-382. PMID:11229977
Smith L, Chang L, Yonekura ML, Gilbride K, Kuo J, Poland RE, Walot I, Ernst T. Brain Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging In Children Exposed To Cocaine In Utero. Pediatrics 2001;107: 227-231. PMID:11158451
Ernst T, Chang L, Oropilla G, Gustavson A, Speck O. Cerebral perfusion abnormalities in abstinent cocaine abusers: Perfusion MRI and SPECT. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2000;99:63-74. PMID:10963982
Ernst T, Chang L, Leonido-Yee M, Speck O. Evidence for Long-Term Neurotoxicity Associated with Methamphetamine Use in Human: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study. Neurology 2000;54:1344-1349. PMID:10746608
Chang L, Grob C, Ernst T, Itti L, Mishkin F, Jose-Melchor R, Poland R. Effect of Ecstasy [3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] on Cerebral Blood Flow: A Co-registered SPECT and MRI study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2000;98:15-28. PMID:10708923
Chang L, Ernst T, Grob CS, Poland RE. Cerebral 1H MRS Alterations in Recreational 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") Users. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1999;10(4):521-526. PMID: 10508318
Chang L, Ernst T, Strickland T, Mehringer CM. Gender Effects on Persistent Cerebral Metabolite Changes in the Frontal Lobes of Abstinent Cocaine Users. American Journal of Psychiatry 1999;156:716-722. PMID: 10327904
Chang L, Mehringer CM, Ernst T, Melchor R, Myers H, Forney D, Satz P. Neurochemical Alterations in Asymptomatic Abstinent Cocaine Users: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study. Biological Psychiatry 1997;42(12):1105-1114.

                              - HIV-AIDS Related

Bora A, Mohien CU, Chaerkady R, Chang L, 4th Moxley R, Sacktor N, Haughey N, McArthur JC, Cotter R, Nath A and Graham DR. Identification of putative biomarkers for HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in the CSF of HIV-infected patients under cART therapy determined by mass spectrometry. Journal of NeuroVirology 2014 Oct;20(5):457-465. Epub 2014 Jul 24. PMID:25056907
Chang L, Jiang CS, Cunningham E, Buchthal S, Douet V, Andres M, Ernst T.  Effects of APOE-e4, Age and HIV on Glial Metabolites and Cognitive Deficits.  Neurology 2014 Jun 17;82(24):2213-22. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000526. Epub 2014 May 21. PMID: 24850492  PMCID: PMC4113464
Panee J, Pang X, Liu XQ, Berry MJ, Chang SL, Chang L. Regional variation of antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress responses in HIV-1 transgenic rats with and without methamphetamine administration. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2013 Jun;8(3):691-704. doi: 10.1007/s11481-013-9454-8. Epub 2013 Apr 2. PMID: 235468885; NIHMSID#462894; PMC#3773562
Chang L, Shoptaw S, Normand J. Brain Abnormalities in HIV and Stimulant Users: Interventions and Prevention. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2013;21:S7-S9. PMID: 25264417 PMCID: PMC4175912
Bandaru VV,  Mielke MM, Sacktor N, McArthur JC,  Grant I, Letendre S, Chang L,Wojna V, Pardo C, Calabresi P, Munsaka S, Haughey NJ. A lipid storage-like disorder contributes to cognitive decline in HIV-infected subjects.  Neurology 2013 Oct 22;81(17):1492-9. Epub 2013 Sep 11, PMID:24027056; PMCID: PMC3888167
Chang L, Yakupov R, Jiang C, Holt J, Ernst T. Lower cognitive reserve in the aging human immunodeficiency virus-infected brain. Neurobiology of Aging 2013; 34(4):1240-1253. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012. 10.012. Epub 2012 Nov 15. NIHMSID#423580. PMID: 23158761 PMCID: PMC3984923
Chang L, Yakupov R, Jiang C, Holt J, Ernst T.  Lower cognitive reserve in the aging human immunodeficiency virus-infected brain.  Neurobiology of Aging 2013; 34(4):1240-1253. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012. 10.012. Epub 2012 Nov 15. NIHMSID#423580; PMC#23158761
Nagarajan R, Sarma MK, Thomas MA, Chang L, Natha U, Wright M, Hayes J, Nielsen-Saines K, Michalik DE, Deville J, Church JA, Mason K, Critton-Mastandrea T, Nazarian S, Jing J, Keller MA. Neuropsychological Function and Cerebral Metabolites in HIV-infected Youth. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2012 Dec;7(4):981-90. doi: 10.1007/s11481-012-9407-7. Epub 2012 Oct 13. PMID: 23065459 PMCID: PMC3557531
Holt J, Kraft-Terry S, Chang L. Neuroimaging Studies of the Aging HIV-Infected Brain. Journal of NeuroVirology 2012 Aug;18(4):291-302. Epub 2012 Jun 1. PMID: 22653528 PMCID: PMC3931913
Chang L, Andres M, Sadino J, Jiang CS, Nakama H, Miller E, Ernst T. Impact of APOEε4 Allelle, Age and HIV on Cognitive Function and Brain Atrophy: Antagonistic Pleiotropy and Premature Brain Aging. Neuroimage. 2011 Oct 15;58(4):1017-27. Epub 2011 Jul 21. PMC#313614.
Andres M, Feger U, Nath A, Munsaka S, Chang L. APOE ε4 allele and CSF APOE on Cognition in HIV-Infected Subjects. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2011 Sep;6(3):389-98. Epub 2010 Dec 24. PMID: 21184197
Ernst T, Jiang CS, Nakama H, Buchthal S, Chang L. Lower Brain Glutamate Is Associated With Cognitive Deficits in HIV Patients: A New Mechanism for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2010 Nov;32(5):1045-53. PMID: 21031507  PMCID: PMC2967445
Zhao Y, Navia BA, Marra, CM, Singer EJ, Chang L, Berger J, Ellis RJ, Kolson DJ, Simpson D, Miller EN, Lipton SA, Evans SR, Schifitto G, and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) 301 Team. Memantine for AIDS Dementia Complex: Open-label Report of ACTG 301. HIV Clinical Trials 2010 Jan-Feb;11(1):59-67. PMID: 20400412  PMCID: PMC2981797
Ernst T, Yakupov R, Nakama H, Crocket G, Cole M, Watters M, Ricardo-Dukelow M, Chang L. Declined Neural Efficiency in Cognitively Stable HIV Patients. Annals of Neurology 2009 Mar;65(3):316-325. PMCID: PMC123871
Yanagihara R, Chang L, Ernst T. Building Infrastructure for HIV/AIDS and Mental Health Research at an Institution Serving Asians and Pacific Islanders. American Journal of Public Health 2009 Apr;99 Suppl 1:S82-6. Epub 2009 Feb 26. PMID: 19246667 PMCID: PMC2724938
Chang L, Wong V, Nakama H, Watters M, Ramones D, Cloak C, Ernst T. Greater than age-related changes in brain diffusion of HIV patients after one-year. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2008 Dec;3(4):265-74. Epub 2008 Aug 15. PMCID: PMC2693362, PMID: 18709469  PMCID: PMC2693362
Chang L, Wang GJ, Volkow N, Ernst T, Telang F, Logan J, Fowler J. Decreased brain dopamine transporters and D2 receptors contribute to cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients with and without psychostimulant abuse. Neuroimage 2008 Aug 15;42(2):869-78. Epub 2008 May 20. PMID: 18579413; PMC 67601
Chang L, Yakupov R, Nakama H, Stokes B, Ernst T, Antiretroviral treatment is associated with increased attentional load-dependent activation in patients with HIV. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2008 Jun;3(2):95-104. Epub 2007 Oct 13. PMCID: PMC128001
Schifitto G, Navia BA, Yiannoutsos CT, Marra CM, Chang L, Ernst T, Jarvik JG, Miller EN, Singer EJ, Ellis RJ, Kolson DL, Simpson D, Nath A, Berger J, Shriver SL, Millar LL, Colquhoun D, Lenkinski R, Gonzalez RG, Lipton SA, the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 301 and 700 Teams and HIV MRS Consortium. Memantine and HIV-Associated Cognitive Impairment: A Neuropsychological and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study. AIDS 2007 Sep;21(14):1877-1886.  PMID: 17721095
Paul R, Yiannoutsos CT, Miller EN, Chang L, Marra CM, Schifitto G, Ernst T, Singer E, Richards T, Jarvik GJ, Price R, Myerhoff D, Kolson D, Ellis RJ, Gonzalez G, Lenkinski R, Cohen RA, Navia BA. Proton MRS and Neuropsychological Correlates in AIDS Dementia Complex: Evidence of Subcortical Specificity. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 2007 Summer;19(3):283-92.  PMID: 17827413
Keller MA; Venkotraman TN, Thomas A, Deveikis A, Hayes J, Berman N, Walot I, Ernst T, Chang L. Cerebral  Metabolites in HIV-infected Children Followed for Ten Months with 1H-MRS. Neurology 2006 Mar;66:874-879.
Berman JW, Carson MJ, Chang L, Cox BM, Fox HS, Gonzalez RG, Hanson GR, Hauser KF, Ho WZ, Hong JS, Major EO, Maragos WF, Masliah E, McArthur JC, Miller DB, Nath A, O’Callaghan JP, Persidsky Y, Power C, Rogers TJ and Royal W. NeuroAIDS, Drug Abuse, and Inflammation: Building Collaborative Research Activities. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology Dec 2006;1(4):351-399. PMID: 18040811
Chang L, Cloak C, Yakupov R, and Ernst T. Combined and independent effects of chronic marijuana use and HIV on brain metabolites. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2006 Mar;1:65-76. PMID: 18040792
Tomasi D, Chang L, de Castro Caparelli EC, Telang F, Ernst T. The human immunodeficiency virus reduces network capacity: Acoustic noise effect. Annals of Neurology 2006 Feb;59:419-423.  PMID: 16437575 PMCID: PMC2440821
Sacktor N, Skolasky SL, Ernst T, , Mao X., Selnes O., Pomper MG, Chang L, Zhong K, Shungu DC, Marder K, Shibata D, Schifitto G, Bobo L, Barker PB, A multicenter study of two magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques in individuals with HIV dementia. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2005 Apr;21(4):325-33.  PMID: 15779034
Chang L, Ernst T, Speck O, Grob C. Additive Effects of HIV and Chronic Methamphetamine Use on Brain Metabolite Abnormalities. American Journal of Psychiatry 2005;162(2)Feb 2005:1-9. PMID: 15677602
Chang L, Lee P L, Yiannoutsos CT, Ernst T, Marra C, Schiffito G, Miller EN, Jarvik J, Kolson D, Simpson D, Lenkinski R, Gonzalez RG, and Navia BA, for the HIV MRS Consortium. A Multicenter In Vivo proton MRS study of HIV-associated brain injury and the effects of aging. Neuroimage , December 2004;23(4):1336-1347.  PMID: 15589098
Cloak C, Chang L, Ernst T. Increased Frontal White Matter Diffusion is Associated with Glial Metabolites and Psychomotor Slowing in HIV. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2004;157(1-2):147-152. PMID: 15579292
Yiannoutsos C, Ernst T, Chang L, Lee PL, Marra C, Meyerhoff D, Jarvic J, Richards T, Kolson D, Schifitto G, Ellis R, Swindells S, Simpson D, Miller E, Komaroff E, Gonzalez RG, Navia BA. Patterns of Regional Brain Metabolism and Diagnostic Utility of Proton MRS in AIDS Dementia Complex. Neuroimage Nov 2004:23:928-935.
Wang GJ, Chang L, Volkow ND, Telang F, Logan J, Ernst T, Fowler J. Decreased brain dopamine transporters in patients with HIV-associated dementia. Brain 2004 Nov;127(Pt 11):2452-8. Epub 2004 Aug 19. PMID: 15319273
Chang L, Tomasi D, Yakupov R, Lozar C, Arnold S, Caparelli EC, Ernst T. Adaptation of the Attention Network in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Brain Injury. Annals of Neurology 2004 August;56:259-272. PMID: 15293278
Chang L, Ernst T, St. Hillaire C, Conant K. Antiretroviral Treatment Alters the Relationship between Chemoattractant Protein and Neurometabolites in HIV. Antiviral Therapy 2004 Jun;9(3):431-440. PMID: 15259906
Keller M, Venkatraman TN, Thomas A, Deveikis A, LoPresti C, Hayes J, Berman N, Walot I, Osborn D, Padilla , Johnston-Jones J, Ernst T, Chang L. Altered neurometabolite development in HIV infected children: correlation with neuropsychological tests. Neurology 2004, May 25;62(10):1810-1817. PMID: 15159483
Ernst T, Chang L, Effect of Aging on Brain Metabolism in Antiretroviral-Naïve HIV Patients. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) 2004;18(1)S61-S67. PMID: 15075499
Ernst T, Chang L, Arnold S. Increased Glial Metabolites Predict Increased Working Memory Network Activation in HIV Brain Injury. Neuroimage 2003 Aug;19(4):1686-93. PMID: 12948723
Royal III W, Dupont B, McGuire D, Chang L, Goodkin K, Ernst T, Post MJ, Fish D, Pailloux G, Poncelet H, Concha M, Apuzzo L, Singer E. Topotecan in the Treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. Journal of NeuroVirology 2003;9(3):411-419. PMID: 12775425
Lee, PL, Yiannoutsos CT, Ernst T, Chang L, Marra CM, Jarvik JG, Richards TL, Kwok EW, Kolson DL, Simpson D, Tang CY, Schifitto G, Ketonen LM, Meyerhoff DJ, Lenkinski RE, Gonzalez RG, Navia BA, and the HIV MRS Consortium. A Multi-Center 1H MRS Study of the AIDS Dementia Complex: Validation and Preliminary Analysis. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2003;17(6):625-633. PMID: 12766890
Chang L, Ernst T, Witt M, Ames N, Walot I, Jovicich J, Speck O, DeSilva M, Trivedi N, Miller E. Persistent Brain Abnormalities in Antiretroviral-Naïve HIV Patients Before and 3 months after HAART. Antiviral Therapy Feb, 2003;8:17-26. PMID: 12713060
Ernst T, Chang L, Jovicich J, Ames N, Gaiefsky M, Arnold Sheeba. Abnormal Brain Activation in Cognitively Asymptomatic HIV patients. Neurology Nov, 2002;59(9):1343-1349. PMID: 12427881
Chang L, Ernst T, Witt M, Ames N, Gaiefsky M, Miller E. Relationships Among Cerebral Metabolites, Cognitive Function and Viral Loads in Antiretroviral-Naïve HIV Patients. NeuroImage 2002;17(3):1638-1648. PMID: 12414302
Chang L, Speck O, Miller E, Braun A, Jovicich J, Itti L, Ernst T. Neural Correlates Of Attention And Working Memory Deficits In Patients With HIV-1. Neurology 2001; 57:1001-1007. PMID: 11571324
Issakhanian M, Chang L, Cornford M, Witt M, Speck O, Goldberg M, Ernst T. HIV-2 Infection with Cerebral Toxoplasmosis and Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis. Journal of Neuroimaging 2001;11:212-216. PMID: 11296596
Ernst T, Itti E, Itti L, Chang L. Cerebral Metabolite Changes Precedes Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Early Stages of HIV-Cognitive Motor Complex: A Co-registered SPECT and MR Spectroscopy Study. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2000;12:859-865.
Chang L, Ernst, T, Leonido-Yee M, Speck O. Perfusion MRI Detects rCBF Abnormalities in Early Stages of HIV-Cognitive Motor Complex. Neurology 2000;54:389-396. PMID: 10668700
Chang L, Ernst T, Leonido-Yee M, Witt M, Speck O, Walot I, Miller EN. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Reverses Brain Metabolite Abnormalities in Mild HIV-1 Dementia. Neurology 1999;53(4):782-789. PMID: 10489041
Ernst T, Chang L, Witt M, Aronow H, Walot I, Leonido-Yee M, Singer E. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy and HIV-Associated White Matter Lesions in AIDS: Magnetization Transfer MR Imaging. Radiology 1999;210(2):539-543. PMID: 10207441
Chang L, Ernst T, Leonido-Yee M, Walot I, Singer E. Cerebral Metabolite Abnormalities Correlate with Clinical Severity of HIV-1 Cognitive Motor Complex. Neurology 1999;52(1):100-108. PMID: 9921855
Ernst T, Chang L, Witt M, Aronow H, Cornford M, Walot I, McBride D, Goldberg M. Perfusion MR Imaging of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis and Lymphoma in AIDS: Preliminary Observations. Radiology 1998;208(3):663-339.
Chang L, Ernst T, Tornatore C, Aronow H, Melchor R, Walot I, Singer E, Cornford M. Metabolite Abnormalities in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Neurology 1997;48(4):836-845. PMID: 9109865
Walot I, Miller BL, Chang L, Mehringer CM. Neuroimaging in AIDS. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996;22:906-919. PMID: 8783686
Chiang F, Miller BL, Chang L, McBride D, Cornford, M, Mehringer M. Fulminant Lymphoma in AIDS. American Journal of Neuroradiology 1996;17:157-160. PMID: 8770269
Chang L. In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in HIV and HIV-Related Brain Diseases. Reviews in the Neurosciences 1995;6(4):365-378. PMID: 8845975
Chang L, Cornford ME, Chiang FL, Ernst TM, Sun NCJ, Miller BL. Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation: Cerebral Toxoplasmosis and Lymphoma in AIDS. American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR) 1995;16:1653-1663.  PMID: 7502971
Chang L, Miller BL, McBride D, Cornford M, Oropilla G, Buchthal S, Chiang F, Aronow H, Beck K, Ernst T. Brain Lesions in Patients with AIDS: H-1 MR spectroscopy. Radiology 1995; 197:525-531 [erratum to add "Beck K" as a co-author: Radiology 1996;198(2):586]. PMID: 7480706
         Animal models:
Panee J, Pang X, Liu XQ, Berry MJ, Chang SL, Chang L. Regional variation of antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress responses in HIV-1 transgenic rats with and without methamphetamine administration. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2013 Jun;8(3):691-704. doi: 10.1007/s11481-013-9454-8. Epub 2013 Apr 2. NIHMSID#462894; PMID: 23546885 PMCID: PMC377356
Fong KS, Cooper TB, Drumhiller WC, Somponpun SJ, Yang S, Ernst T, Chang L, Lozanoff S. Craniofacial features resembling frontonasal dysplasia with a tubulonodular interhemispheric lipoma in the adult 3H1 tuft mouse. Birth Defects Research A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 2012 Feb;94(2):102-13. doi: 10.1002/bdra.22878. Epub 2012 Jan 13. PMID: 22246904  PMCID: PMC3313832
Cloak CC, Chang L, O'Neil SP, Ernst TM, Anderson DC, Donahoe RM. Neurometabolite Abnormalities in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques With Chronic Morphine Administration. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2011 Sep;6(3):371-80. Epub 2010 Oct 12. PMID: 20938808  PMCID: PMC3084341
Kass MD, Liu X, Vigorito M, Chang L, Chang SL. Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral and Physiological Effects in Adolescent and Adult HIV-1 Transgenic Rats. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2010 Dec;5(4):566-73. Jun 9 [Epub] PMID: 20532992
Liu XQ, Chang L, Vigorito M, Kass M, Li H, Chang SL. Methamphetamine-Induced behavioral Sensitization is Enhanced in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2009; Sep;4(3):309-16. Epub 2009 May 15 PMID: 19444617
Chang SL, Cloak C, Malellari L, Chang L. The effects of repeated endotoxin exposure on rat brain metabolites as measured by ex vivo 1HMRS. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2005 Jul 1 [Epub]; Sep;166(1-2):39-46.  PMID:15996758
Cloak C, Chang L, Ernst T, Phillips T, Huitron-Resendiz S, Sanchez-Alavez M, Hampton V, Henriksen S. Methamphetamine and AIDS: ex vivo 1HMRS in a Feline Model. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2004;147:16-20.

                              - Normal Brain Structures Function, Development and Aging

Holland D, Chang L, Kuperman KM, Ernst TM, Curran M, Buchthal SD, Alicata D, Skranes J, Johansen H, Hernandez A, Yamakawa R, Dale AM. The First Three Months: A Longitudinal Analysis of Early Postnatal Brain Development. JAMA Neurology 2014 Oct 1;71(10):1266-74. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.1638. PMID:25111045 [PubMed - in process]
Douet V, Chang L, Cloak C, Ernst T. Genetic influences on brain developmental trajectories on Neuroimaging studies from infancy to young adulthood. Brain Imaging and Behavior  2014 Jun;8(2):234-50. doi: 10.1007/s11682-013-9260-1.PMID:24077983  PMCID: PMC3969783
Douet V, Chang L, Pritchett A, Lee K, Keating B, Bartsch H, Jernigan TL, Dale A, Akshoomoff N, Murray S, Bloss C, Kennedy D, Amaral D, Gruen J, Kaufmann WE, Casey BJ, Sowell E, and Ernst T, for the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Study (PING). Functional psychosis-risk variant in the neuregulin-1 gene on brain developmental trajectories in healthy children. Translational Psychiatry May 27;4:e392. doi: 10.1038/tp.2014.41. PMID: 24865593 [PubMed - in process]
Akshoomoff N, Newman E, Thompson WK, McCabe C, Bloss CS, , Chang L, Amaral DG, Casey BJ, Ernst TM, Frazier JA, Gruen JR, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Kennedy DN, Libiger O, Mostofsky S, Murray SS, Sowell ER, Schork N, Dale AM, Jernigan TL. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: Results from a Large Normative Developmental Sample (PING). Neuropsychology 2014 Jan;28(1):1-10. doi: 10.1037/neu0000001. Epub 2013 Nov 11. PMID:24219608  PMCID: PMC3925365
Eicher JD, Powers NR, Miller LL, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Libiqer O, Schork NJ, Darst BF, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst T, Frazier J, Kaufmann, WE, Keating B, Kenet T, Kennedy D, Mostofsky S, Murray SS, Sowell ER, Bartsch H, Kuperman JM, Brown TT, Hagler DJ Jr, Dale AM, Jernigan TL, St. Pourcain B, Davey Smith G, Ring SM, Gruen JR. Pediatric Imaging Neurocognition, and Genetics Study. Genome-Wide Association Study of Shared Components of Reading Disability and Language Impairment. Genes, Brain and Behavior 2013 Nov; 12(8):792-801; doi: 10.1111/gbb.12085. [Epub 2013 Oct 9] PMID:24024963  PMCID: PMC3904347
Oishi K, Faria AV, Yoshida S, Chang L, Mori S. Quantitative evaluation of brain development using anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 2013 Jun 21;31(7):512:524. PMID: 23796902; PMCID: PMC3830705.
Brown TT, Kuperman JM, Chung Y, Erhart M, McCabe C, Hagler DJ Jr, Venkatraman VK, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst TM, Frazier JA, Gruen JR, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Kennedy DN, Murray SS, Sowell ER, Jernigan TL, Dale AM. Multimodal quantitative structural imaging captures individual human brain development. Current Biology. 2012 Sep 25;22(18):1693-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.07.002. Epub 2012 Aug 16. PMID: 22902750
Walhovd KB, Fjell AM, Brown TT, Kuperman JM, Chung Y, Hagler DJ, Roddey C, Erhart M, McCabe C, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Libiger O, Schork NJ, Darst BF, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst TM, Frazier J, Gruen JR, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Murray SS, Sowell ER, vanZijl P, Jernigan TL and Dale AM. for the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Study. Long term influence of normal variation in neonatal characteristics on human brain development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U S A. 2012 Dec 4;109(49):20089-94. Nov 19 [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23169628    PMCID: PMC3523836
Fjell AM, Walhovd KB, Brown T, Kuperman JM, Chung YH, Hagler D, Venkatraman V, Roddey C, Erhart M, McCabe C, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst TM, Gruen JR, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Kennedy DN, Murray SS, Sowell ER, van Zijl P, Jernigan T, and Dale AM. for the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Study. Multi Modal Imaging of the Self-Regulating Developing Brain - Results from the PING Study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U S A. 2012 Nov 27;109(48):19620-5. Epub 2012 Nov 12. PMID: 23150548  PMCID: PMC3511748
Bakken TE, Roddey JC, Djurovic S, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst TM, Gruen JR, Jernigan TL, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Kennedy DN, Kuperman JM, Murray SS, Sowell ER, Rimol LM, Mattingsdal M, Melle I, Agartz I, Andreassen OA, Schork NJ, Dale AM; for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative; Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Study. Association of common genetic variants in GPCPD1 with scaling of visual cortical surface area in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U S A 2012 Mar 6;109(10):3985-90. Epub 2012 Feb 16. PMID: 22343285  PMCID: PMC3309762
Oishi K, Mori S, Donahue P, Ernst T, Anderson L, Buchthal S, Faria A, Jiang H, Li X, Miller MI, van Zijl P, and Chang L. Multi-Contrast Human Neonatal Brain Atlas: Application to Normal Neonate Development Analysis. Neuroimage 2011 May 1;56(1):8-20. Epub 2011 Jan 26. PMID: 21276861   PMCID: PMC3066278
Chang L, Jiang CS, Ernst T. Effects of age and sex on brain glutamate and other metabolites. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2009 Jan;27(1):142-5. Epub 2008 Aug 6.  PMID: 18687554 PMCID: PMC3164853
Sailasuta N, , Ernst T, Chang L. Regional variations and the effects of age and gender on glutamate concentrations in the human brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2008 Jun;26(5):667-75. Epub 2007 Aug 9.  PMID: 17692491 PMCID: PMC2712610
Tomasi D, Chang L, Caparelli EC, Ernst T. Gender differences in brain activation in the thalamus during visuospatial attention tasks: implication for sex-differences in sensory gating. Neuroscience 2008 Feb 19;151(4):1006-15. Epub 2007 Dec 15
Tomasi D, Chang L, Caparelli EC, Ernst T. Different activation patterns for working memory load and visual attention load. Brain Research 2007;1132:158-165.  PMID: 17169343 PMCID: PMC1831676
Tomasi D, Ernst T, Caparelli EC, Chang L. Common deactivation patterns during working memory and visual attention tasks: An intra-subject fMRI study at 4 Tesla. Human Brain Mapping 2006, Jan 10 Epub ahead of print; 2006 Aug;27(8):694-705.   PMID: 16404736 PMCID: PMC2424317
Tomasi D, Caparelli EC, Chang L, Ernst T. fMRI-acoustic noise alters brain activation during working memory tasks. Neuroimage 2005, May 11; [Epub ahead of print]; Aug 15;27(2):377-86.  PMID: 15893942 PMCID: PMC2449823
Tomasi D, Ernst T, Arnold S, Caparelli EC, Chang L. The Effect of Practice in Visual Attention Processing: A functional MRI study at 4 Tesla. Neuroimage December 2004;23(4):1414-1421.  PMID: 15589105
Jovicich J, Peters R, Koch K, Braun J, Chang L, Ernst T. Brain Areas Specific for Attentional Load in a Motion Tracking Task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2001;13:1048-1058  PMID: 11784443

                              - Methods Related

Zhang Y,Chang L, Ceritoglu C, Buchthal S, Skranes J, Ernst T, Mori S, Miller MI, Oishi K. A Bayesian approach to the creation of a study-customized neonatal brain atlas. Neuroimage 2014 Jul 12;101C:256-267. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.07.001. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25026155  PMCID: PMC4165785
Tamura-Sato A, Chyba M, Chang L, Ernst T.  Optimization of Multivariate Inverse Mixing Problem with Application to Neural Metabolite Analysis. Journal of Optimization and Theory and Applications (in press)
Gumus K, Keating B, Poser BA, Armstrong B, Chang L, Maclaren J, Prieto T, Speck O, Zaitsev M, Ernst T. Prevention of motion-induced signal loss in diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging by dynamic restoration of gradient moments.  Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jun;71(6):2006-13. doi: 10.1002/mrm.24857. Epub 2013 Jul 2. PMID: 23821373
Hser YI, Chang L, Wang GJ, Li MD, Rawson R, Shoptaw S, Normand J, Tai B. Capacity building and collaborative research on cross-national studies in the Asian region. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2013;21:S117-S122.  PMID: 24567700[PubMed] PMCID: PMC3931525
Zhong K, Ernst T, Buchthal S, Anderson L, Speck O, Chang L. Phase Contrast Imaging in Neonates. Neuroimage 2011 Apr 1;55(3):1068-72. Epub 2011 Jan 11. PMID: 21232619  PMCID: PMC3155286
Tomasi D, Volkow ND, Wang RL, Telang F, Wang GJ, Chang L, Ernst T, Fowler JS. Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Modulate Brain Activation and Deactivation during Visuospatial Attention. Public Library of Science (PLoS) ONE. 2009 Jun 30;4(6):e6102. PMID: 19564918 PMCID: PMC2699543
Kim J, Zhu W, Chang L, Bentler PM, Ernst T. Unified structural equation modeling approach for the analysis of multisubject, multivariate functional MRI data. Human Brain Mapping 2007 [Epub May 22 2006]; Feb;28(2):85-93.   PMID: 16718669
Caparelli E, Tomasi D, Arnold S, Chang L, Ernst T. k-Space Based Motion Detection for Functional MRI, Neuroimage 2003 October;20(2):1411-1418.  PMID: 14568510
Speck O, Ernst T, Chang L. Multi Gradient Echo Acquisition Techniques for fMRI: Advantages of Bi-Exponential Modeling. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 2001;45:1116-1121.
Itti L, Ernst T, Chang L. Automatic Scan Prescription for Brain MRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 2001;45:486-494.  PMID: 11241708
Speck O, Ernst T, Braun J, Koch C, Miller E, Chang L. Gender Differences in the Functional Organization of the Brain for Working Memory. Neuroreport 2000;11(11): 2581-2585.  PMID: 10943726
Speck O, Chang L, DeSilva M, Ernst T. Dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI: gradient echo versus spin echo sequences. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2000;12:381-387.  PMID: 12427428
Ernst T, Chang L, Itti L, Speck O. Correlation of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow from Perfusion MRI and SPECT in Normal Subjects. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1999;17(3):349-354.  PMID: 10195577
Ernst T, Speck O, Itti L, Chang L. Simultaneous Correction for Interscan Patient Motion and Geometric Distortion in Echoplanar Imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 1999;42:201-205.  PMID: 10398968
Speck O, Chang L, Itti L, Itti E, Ernst T. Comparison of Static and Dynamic MRI Techniques for the Measurement of Regional Cerebral Blood Volume. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 1999;41:1264-1268.  PMID:10371461
Itti L, Chang L, Ernst T, Mishkin F. Improved 3D Correction for Partial Volume Effects in Brain SPECT. Human Brain Mapping 1997;5(5):379-388.  PMID: 20408242
Itti L, Chang L, Mangin JF, Darcourt J, Ernst T. Robust Multimodality Registration for Brain Mapping. Human Brain Mapping 1997;5:3-17.  PMID: 20408206
Ernst T, Chang L. Elimination of Artifacts in Short Echo Time 1H MR Spectroscopy of the Frontal Lobe. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 1996;36:462-468.  PMID: 8875419

                              - Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

          Research Papers (peer-reviewed)
Chang L, Munsaka SM, Kraft-Terry S, Ernst T. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Assess NeuroInflammation and Neuropathic Pain. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2013 Jun;8(3):576-593. doi: 10.1007/s11481-013-9460-x. Epub 2013 May 12. PMID: 23666436 PMCID: PMC3698315  NIHMSID#478852 
Chang L, Cooper MS, Clark VC. Imaging Biomarkers and the Role of Neuroinflammation in Neuropathic Pain. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2013 Jun;8(3):448-451. doi: 10.1007/s11481-013-9457-5. Epub 2013 May 12. PMID: 23666404 PMCID: PMC3714220   NIHMSID#478722
Chang L. Altered Glutamatergic Metabolism and Activated Glia: Biomarkers for Neuropathic Pain? Pain. 2013 Feb;154(2):181-182. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2012.11.001. Epub 2012 Nov 6.  PMID: 23177382
Chang L. "In Search of an Immunobiomarker for Parkinson’s Disease" Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2012; 7(4):719-721, Nov 12, [ Epub ahead of print]  PMID: 23138698
Jia Y, Wu T, Jelinek CA, Bielekova B, Chang L, Newsome S, Gnanapavan S, Giovannoni G, Chen D, Calabresi PA, Nath A, Cotter RJ. Development of protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS). Clinical Proteomics 2012 Jul 30;9(1):9. doi: 10.1186/1559-0275-9-9.  PMID: 22846148 PMCID: PMC3466133
Kuramoto A, Chang L, Grahm J, Holmes S. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with Exacerbation of Back Pain in the Supine Position: A Potential Contraindication For Supine MRI With Sedation. Journal of Neuroimaging 2009 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print]. 21(1): 92-94. PMID: 19490371  PMCID: PMC3157482
Friedman JI, Chang L, Ernst T, Tsopelas ND, Zhong K, Davis KL. Relationships between white matter metabolite abnormalities, cognitive and social functioning in elderly schizophrenic subjects. Schizophrenia Research 2008 Mar;100(1-3):356-8. Epub 2007 Nov 26.  PMID: 18042350
Chang L, Friedman J, Ernst T, Zhong K, Tsopelas N, Davis K. Brain metabolite abnormalities in the white matter of elderly schizophrenic subjects: implication for glial dysfunction. Biological Psychiatry 2007 Dec 15;62(12):1396-404. Epub 2007 Aug 13.  PMID: 17693392 PMCID: PMC2222890
Tang CY, Friedman J, Shungu D, Chang L, Ernst T, Steward D, Carpenter D, Ng J, Hajianpour A, Mao XL, Hof P, Buchsbaum MS, Davis K and Gorman JM. Correlations between Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS) in schizophrenic patients and normal controls. BioMedical Central (BMC) Psychiatry 2007, 7:25 (19 Jun 2007).  PMID: 17578565 PMCID: PMC1929081
Chang L, Cloak C, Ernst T. MRS studies of GABA in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2003; 64 Suppl 3:7-14.  PMID:12662128
Ernst T, Chang L, Cooray D, Salvador C, Jovicich J, Walot I, Boone K, Chlebowski R. The Effects of Tamoxifen and Estrogen on Brain Metabolism in Elderly Women, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2002;94(8):592-597.  PMID: 11959892
Itti L, Chang L, Ernst T. Segmentation of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Lesions in Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Journal of Neuroimaging 2001;11:412-417.  PMID: 11677882
Poland RE, Cloak C, Lutchmansingh PJ, McCracken JT, Chang L, Ernst T. Brain N-acetyl Aspartate Concentrations Measured by 1H MRS are Reduced in Adult Male Rats Subjected to Perinatal Stress: Preliminary Observations and Hypothetical Implications for Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research 1999;33(1):41-51.
Ernst T, Chang L, Walot I, Huff K. Physiologic MRI of a Tumefactive Lesion in Multiple Sclerosis. Neurology 1998;51:1486-1488.  PMID: 9818892
Galasko D, Chang L, Motter R, Clark CM, Kaye J, Knopman D, Thomas R, Kholodenko D, Schenk D, Lieberburg I, Miller B, Green R, Basherad R, Kertiles L, Boss MA, Seubert P. High Cerebrospinal Fluid Tau and Low Amyloid b 42 Levels in the Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease and Relation to Apolipoprotein E Genotype. Archives of Neurology 1998;55:937-945.  PMID: 9678311
Chang L, Ernst T, Osborn D, Seltzer W. Leonido-Yee M, Poland RE. Proton Spectroscopy in Myotonic Dystrophy: Correlation with CTG Repeats. Archives of Neurology 1998;55(3):305-311.  PMID: 9520004
Ernst T, Chang L, Melchor R, Mehringer M. Frontotemporal Dementia and Early Alzheimer Disease: Differentiation with Frontal Lobe H-1 MR Spectroscopy. Radiology 1997;203:829-836.  PMID: 9169712
Galasko D, Clark C, Chang L, Miller B, Green RC, Motter R, Seubert P. Assessment of CSF levels of tau protein in mildly demented patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1997;48(3):632-635.  PMID: 9065538
Benson DF, Djenderedjian A, Miller BL, Bihanas N, Chang L, Itti L, Mena I. Neural Basis of Confabulation, Neurology 1996;46:1239-1243.  PMID: 8628459
Chang L, Ernst T, Poland RE, Jenden DJ. In Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Normal Aging Human Brain. Life Sciences 1996;58(22):2049-2056.  PMID: 8637436
Miller BL, Chang L, Booth R, Ernst T, Cornford M, Nikas D, McBride D, Jenden DJ. In vivo 1H MRS Choline in the Brain: Correlation with In Vitro Chemistry / Histology. Life Sciences 1996;58(22):1929-1935.  PMID: 8637421
Grob C, Poland R, Chang L, Ernst Th. Psychobiologic Effects of 3,4-Methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Humans: Methodological Considerations and Preliminary Observations. Behavioral Brain Research 1996;73:103-107.  PMID: 8788485
McBride DQ, Miller BL, Nikas DL, Buchthal S, Chang L, Chiang F, Booth RA. Analysis of Brain Tumors using 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Surgical Neurology 1995;44:137-144.  PMID: 7502203
Motter R, Vigo-Pelfrey C, Kholodenko D, Barbour R, Johnson-Wood K, Galasko D, Chang L, Miller B, Clarke C, Green R, Olson D, Southwick P, Wolfert R, Munroe B, Lieberburg I, Seubert P, Schenk D. Reduction of Amyloid Beta Peptide42 and Elevation of Tau in the CSF of Alzheimer Patients. Annals of Neurology 1995;38:643-648.
Miller BL, Itti L, Li J, Darby A, Booth R, Chang L, Mena I. Atrophy Corrected Cerebral Blood Flow in Fronto-Temporal Dementia. Facts and Research in Gerontology 1995; (supplement):93-103.
Chang L, Scharre DW, Miller BL, Cummings J, Vigo-Pelfry C, Schenk D. Beta-Amyloid Protein in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Alzheimer Disease: Correlations with Mini-Mental State Examination Scores. Facts and Research in Gerontology 1995; (supplement):84-92.
Munroe WA, Southwick PC, Chang L, Scharre DW, Echols CL, Fu PC, Whaley JM, Wolfert RL. Measurement of Tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid as an aid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science 1995; 25(3):207-217.  PMID: 7605102
Chang L, McBride D, Miller BL, Cornford M, Booth RA, Buchthal SD, Ernst TM, Jenden D. Localized In Vivo 1H MRS and In Vitro Analyses of Heterogeneous Brain Tumors. Journal of Neuroimaging 1995;5:157-163.  PMID: 7626823
Small G, Mazziotta JC, Collins MT, Baxter LR, Phelps ME, Mandelkern MA, Kaplan A, LaRue A, Adamson CA, Chang L, Guze BH, Corder EH, Saunders AM, Haines JL, Pericak-Vance MA, Roses AD. The Effect of Apolipoprotein E Type 4 Allele on Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Relatives at Risk for Familial Alzheimer Disease. JAMA 1995;273:942-947.  PMID: 7884953
Vigo-Pelfrey C, Seubert P, Barbour R, Blomquist C, Lee M, Lee D, Coria FBA, Chang L, Miller B, Lieberburg I, Schenk D. Elevation of Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Alzheimer's Patients. Neurology 1995;45:788-793.  PMID: 7723971
Chang L, Cornford M, Miller BL, Itabashi H, Mena I. Neuronal Ultrastructural Abnormalities in a Patient with Frontotemporal Dementia and Motor Neuron Disease. Dementia 1995;6:1-8.  PMID: 7728214
Cornford M, Chang L, Miller BL. Pathology of Parkinsonian Dementia Syndromes: A Review. Brain and Cognition 1995;28:321-341
Palmer B, Boone KB, Chang L, Lee A, Black S. Cognitive Deficits And Personality Patterns In Maternally Versus Paternally Inherited Myotonic Dystrophy. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 1994;16(5):784-795.  PMID: 7836502
Chang L, Yener GG, Miller BL, Mehringer M. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Alzheimer's Disease: New Directions. Facts and Research in Gerontology 1994;7:295-307.
Small G, Okonek A, Mandelkern MA, La Rue A, Chang L, Khonsary A, Ropchan JR, Blahd WH. Subjective and Objective Age-Associated Memory Loss: Initial Neuropsychological, Family History, and Brain Metabolic Findings of a Longitudinal Study. International Psychogeriatrics 1994;6:23-44. (Second Place in the 1993 IPA Research Awards).  PMID: 8054492
Yamagata NT, Miller BL, McBride D, Chang L, Buchthal S, Chiang F. In vivo Proton Spectroscopy of Intracranial Infections and Neoplasms. Journal of Neuroimaging 1994;4:23-29.  PMID: 8136575
Miller BL, Chang L, Mena I, Boone K, Lesser IM. Progressive Right Fronto-Temporal Degeneration: Clinical, Neuropsychological and SPECT Characteristics. Dementia 1993;4:204-213.  PMID: 8401793
Chang L, Anderson T, Migneco OA, Boone K, Mehringer CM, Villanueva-Meyer J, Berman N, Mena I. Cerebral Abnormalities in Myotonic Dystrophy: Cerebral Blood Flow, MRI and Neuropsychological Tests. Archives of Neurology 1993;50:917-923.  PMID: 8363445

                              - Other Neurological Disorders Related

Douet V and Chang L. Fornix As An Imaging Marker For Memory Deficits In Healthy Aging and in Neurological Disorders. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 2015
Koenig MA, Holt JL, Ernst T, Buchthal SD, Nakagawa K, Stenger VA, Chang L. MRI Default Mode Network Connectivity is Associated with Functional Outcome After Cardiopulmonary Arrest. Neurocritical Care 2014 Jun;20(3):348-57. Epub Jan 24. PMID: 24464830  PMCID: PMC4136809
O'Phelan K, Ernst T, Park D, Stenger A, Kaherine D, Green D, Chang C, Chang L. Impact of Methamphetamine on Regional Metabolism and Cerebral Blood Flow after Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurocritical Care 2013 Oct;19(2):183-91. doi: 10.1007/s12028-013-9871-9. [Epub Jul 9] PMID: 23836426 PMCID: PMC4111452
Chang L, Munsaka SM, Kraft-Terry S, Ernst T. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2013 Jun;8(3):576-593. doi: 10.1007/s11481-013-9460-x. Epub 2013 May 12. NIHMSID#478852; PMID: 23666436; PMCID: PMC3698315
Chang L, Cooper MS, Clark VC. Imaging biomarkers and the role of neuroinflammation in neuropathic pain. Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2013 Jun;8(3):448-451. doi: 10.1007/s11481-013-9457-5. Epub 2013 May 12. NIHMSID#478722; PMC#3714221
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