Faculty Projects and Publications

E. Gordon Grau: Full Publications Record

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Peer-Refereed Publications (does not include abstracts)

Submitted

Kaiya, H., Riley, L., Hirano, T., Grau, E. G., Miyazato, M., and ; Kangawa, K. Identification and Genomic Sequence of Ghrelin Receptor (GHS-R)-like Receptor in the Mozambique Tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.  Zoological Science, submitted.

Breves, J. P., Fox, B. K., Pierce, A. L., Hirano, T. and  Grau, E. G. Osmoregulatory and endocrine responses of two species of cichlid fish, Mozambique tilapia and Nile tilapia, to acute salinity challenges" J. Comp. Physiol. Part B. submitted.

Accepted for Publication

161. Fox, B. K., Breves, J. P., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. Effects of short- and long-term fasting on plasma and stomach ghrelin, and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Domestic Animal Endocrinology. In press.

160. Davis, L. K. Visitacion, N., Riley, L. G., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. Effects of 17b-estradiol, o,p’-DDE and heptachlor on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.  Accepted for publication.

159. Witt, E., Laidley, C., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G.  Effects of environmental iodine concentrations on larval growth, survival, and whole body concentrations of thyroid hormones and cortisol in Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Aquaculture accepted for publication.

Published

158. Peddu, S. C., Breves, J. P., Kaiya, H., Grau, E. G. and Riley, L. G. 2009. Pre- and Postprandial Effects on Ghrelin Signaling in the Brain and on the GH/IGF-I axis in the Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 161 (2009) 412–418.

157.  Watanabe, S. Hirano,T., Grau, E. G., and Kaneko, T.  2009. Osmosensitivity of prolactin cells is enhanced by the water channel aquaporin-3 in a euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Amer. J. Physiol.  296: R446-R453.

156. Davis, L. K., Visitacion, N.,  Riley, L. G., Hiramatsu, N., Sullivan, C. V., Hirano, T/ and Grau, E. G. 2009. Effects of o,p’-DDE, heptachlor, and 17β-estradiol on vitellogenin gene expression and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiology: Part C. 149 () 507–514.

155. Uchida, K., Moriyama, S., Breves, J. P.; Fox, B. K., Pierce, A. L., Borski, R. J., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2009. cDNA cloning and isolation of somatolactin in Mozambique tilapia and effects of seawater acclimation, confinement stress, and fasting on its pituitary expression. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 161:162-170

154. Riley, L.G., Fox, B.K., Breves, J.P., Kaiya, H., Dorough, C.P., Hirano, T., Grau, E.G. 2008. Absence of effects of short-term fasting on plasma ghrelin and brain expression of ghrelin receptors in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Zoological Science 25: 821–827.

153.Davis, L. K. Pierce, A. L., Hiramatsu, N. Sullivan, C.V., Hirano, T., and Grau, E. G. 2008. Gender-specific expression of multiple estrogen receptors, growth hormone receptors, insulin-like growth factors and vitellogenins, and effects of 17β-estradiol in the male tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Gen Comp. Endocrinol. 156: 544-551.

152. Yada, T., Azuma, T., Hyodo, S., Hirano, T., Grau, E. G. and Schreck, C. B. 2007.  Differential expression of corticosteroid receptor genes in trout immune system in response to acute stress. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 64: 1382-1389.

151. Fox, B. K., Naka, T., Inoue, K., Takei, Y.,  Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2007.  In vitro effects of homologous natriuretic peptides on growth hormone and prolactin release in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 150: 270-277.

150.Magdeldin, S., Uchida, K., Hirano, T., Grau, E.G., Abdelfattah, A., Nozaki, M. 2007. Effects of environmental salinity on somatic growth and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Fish. Sci. 73: 1025-1034.

149. Pierce, A. L., Fox, B. K., Davis, L. K., Visitacion, N., Kitahashi, T., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2007. Prolactin receptor, growth hormone receptor, and putative somatolactin receptor in Mozambique tilapia: Tissue specific expression and differential regulation by salinity and fasting. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 154: 31-40

148. Takahashi, H, Prunet, P., Kitahashi, T., Kajimura, S., Hirano, T., Grau, E. G. and Sakamoto, T. (2006). Prolactin receptor and proliferating/apoptotic cells in esophagus of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in fresh water and in seawater. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 151: 259-268.

147. Kawakoshi, A., Kaiya, H., Riley, L. G., Hirano, Grau, E. G. and Kangawa, K. (2006). Identification of Ghrelin in Two Species of Shark, Sphyrna lewini and Carcharhinus melanopterus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 152: 326-31.

146. Davis, L. K., Hiramatsu, N., Hiramatsu, K., Reading, B. J., Matsubara, T., Hara, A., Sullivan, C. V., Pierce, A. L., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2007. Induction of three vitellogenins by 17beta-estradiol with concurrent inhibition of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in a euryhaline teleost, the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Biol. Reprod. 77(4):614-25

145. Fox, B. K., Riley, L. G., Dorough, C., Kaiya, H., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2007. Effects of Homologous Ghrelins on the Growth Hormone/I00nsulin-like Growth Factor-I Axis in the Tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Zool. Sci. 24: 391-400.

144. Fiess, J. C., Kunkel-Patterson, A., Mathias, M. Riley, L. G., Yancey, P. H., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2007. Effects of environmental salinity and temperature on osmoregulatory ability, organic osmolytes, and plasma hormone profiles in the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 146A: 252-264.

143. Bellinger, F.P., Fox, B.K., Chan, W.Y., Davis, L.K., Andres, M.A., Hirano, T., Grau, E.G., Cooke, I.M. 2006. Ionotropic glutamate receptor activation increases intracellular calicium in prolactin-releasing cells of the adenohypophysis. Am. J. Physiol. 291, E1188-E1196.

142. Fox, B.K., Naka, T., Inoue, K., Takei, Y., Hirano, T., Grau, E.G. 2006. In vitro effects of homologous natriuretic peptides on growth hormone and prolactin release in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 150, 270-277.

141. Fox, B. K., Riley, L. G.., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2006. Effects of fasting on growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I axis in seawater-acclimated tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 148, 340-347.

140. Takahashi, H., Sakamoto, T., Hyodo, S., Shepherd, B.S., Grau, E. 2006. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor in the intestine of a euryhaline teleost, the mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): effect of seawater exposure and cortisol treatment. Life Sciences 78(20): 2329-2335.

139. Shoemaker, J., . Shoemaker, J., Riley, L.G., Hirano, T., Grau, E. G., and Rubin, D. A. 2006. Differential expression of tuberoinfundibular peptide 38 and glucose-6-phosphatase in tilapia. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 146(2):186-194.

138. Shepherd, B. S., Weber, G. M., Vijayan, M. M., Seale, A., Riley, L. G., Richman, N. H. III, Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2006. Control of growth in tilapia: Development and prospect. In "Tilapias: Culture, Nutrition and Feeding", C. D. Webster and C. E. Lim (Eds.), Haworth Press, Inc, Binghamton, New York. pp 73-138.

137. Seale, A. P., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2006. Osmoreception: a fish model for a fundamental sensory modality. In “Fish Endocrinology” Vol. 1, M. Reinecke, G. Zaccone and B. K. Kapoor (Eds.), Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, pp. 419-440.

136. Seale, A. P., Fiess, J., Riley, L.G., Hirano, T., Cooke, I., and Grau, E. G. 2006. Disparate release of prolactin and growth hormone from the tilapia pituitary in response to osmotic stimulation and acclimation salinity. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 145:222-31.

135. Seale, A. P., Hirano, T., and Grau, E. G. 2005. Stimulus-secretion coupling in the osmoreceptive prolactin cell of the tilapia. In " Mechanosensitivity in Cells and Tissues", A. Kamkin and I. Kiseleva (Eds.), Mechanosensitivity in Cells and Tissues. Andre Kamkin & Irina Kiseleva, Eds. Academia Moscow pp 371-389.

134. Kajimura, S., Seale, A. P., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2005. Physiological concentrations of ouabain rapidly inhibit prolactin release from the tilapia pituitary. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 143:240-250.

133. Riley, L. G., Fox, B. K., Kaiya, H., Hirano, T., and Grau, E. G. 2005. Long-term treatment of ghrelin stimulates feeding, fat deposition and alters the GH/IGF-I axis in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 142: 234-240.

132. Tipsmark, C. K., Weber, G. M., Strom, C. N., Grau, E. G., Hirano, T. and Borski, R. 2005. Involvement of phospholipase C and intracellular calcium signaling in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulation of prolactin release from lactotrophs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 142: 227-233.

131. Hyde, G. N., Seale, A. P., Grau, E. G. and Borski, R. J. 2004. Cortisol rapidly suppresses intracellular calcium and voltage-gated calcium channel activity in prolactin cells of the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Amer. J. Physiol. ENDOC M 286 (4): E626-E633

130. Kajimura, S., Hirano, T., Moriyama, S., Vakkuri, O., Leppauluoto J. and Grau E. G. 2004. Changes in plasma concentrations of immunoreactive ouabain in the tilapia in response to changing salinity: is ouabain a hormone in fish? Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 135: 90-99.

129. Seale, E A. P., Cooke, I., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2004. Evidence that IP3 and ryanodine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores are not involved in acute hyposmotically-induced prolactin release in tilapia. Cell Physiol Biochem. 14 (3): 155-166 2004.

128. Kajimura, S. Kawaguchi, N., Kaneko, T., Kawazoe, I., Hirano. T., Visitacion, N., Grau, E. G. and Aida, K. 2004. Identification of growth hormone receptor of an advanced teleost, tilapia, with special reference to its expression in the ovary. J. Endocrinol. 181: 65-76.

127. Uchida, K., Yoshikawa-Ebesu, J., Kajimura, S., Yada, T. Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2004. In vitro effects of cortisol on the release and gene expression of prolactin and growth hormone in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 135: 116-12.5

126. Weber, G. M., Seale, A. P., Richman, N. H., Stetson, M. H., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2004. Hormone release is tied to changes in cell size in the osmoreceptive prolactin cell of a euryhaline teleost fish, the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 138:8-13

125. Riley, L. G., Hirano, T., and Grau, E. G. 2004. Estradiol-17ß and dihydrotestosterone differentially regulate vitellogenin and insulin-like growth factor-1 production in primary hepatocytes of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 138: 177-186.

124. Seale, A. P., Weber, G. M., Richman III, N. H., Stetson, M. H., Hirano, T., and Grau, E. G. 2004. Cell size regulates hormone release in the osmoreceptive prolactin cell of the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. 138-140. Trends in Comparative Endocrinology, T. Oishi, K. Tsutsui, S. Tanaka, and S. Kikuyama, Eds. Pp.138-140.

123. Yada, T., Azuma, T., Schreck, C. B., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2004. Effects of growth hormone on proliferation and immune function of leucocytes in euryhaline fish. Trends in Comparative Endocrinology, T. Oishi, K. Tsutsui, S. Tanaka, and S. Kikuyama, Eds. 95-97.

122. Riley, L. G., Hirano, T., and Grau, E. G. 2004. Disparate effects of gonadal steroid hormones on plasma and liver mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and vitellogenin in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 26, 223-230

121. Uchida, K., Yoshikawa-Ebesu, J., Kajimura, S., Yada, T. Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2004. In vitro effects of cortisol on the release and gene expression of prolactin and growth hormone in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 135: 116-125.

120. Kajimura, S., Hirano, T., Moriyama, S., Vakkuri, O., Leppauluoto J. and Grau E. G. 2004. Changes in plasma concentrations of immunoreactive ouabain in the tilapia in response to changing salinity: is ouabain a hormone in fish? Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 135: 90-99.

119. Riley, L.G., Hirano T. and Grau E.G. 2003: Effects of transfer from seawater to fresh water on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-i axis and prolactin in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.. 136: 647-655.

118. Sparks, R. T., Ron, B., Shepherd, B. S., Shimoda, S. K., Iwama, G.K. and Grau, E. G. 2003. Effects of environmental salinity and 17alpha-methyltestosterone on growth and oxygen consumption in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part 136: 657-665.

117. Kajimura, S., Hirano, T., Visitacion, N., Moriyama, S., Aida, K., and Grau, E. G. 2003. Dual mode of cortisol action on GH/IGF-I/IGFBPs in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. J. Endocrinol. 178: 91-99.

116. Kaiya, H., Kojima, M., Hosoda, H., Riley, L. G., Hirano, T., Grau, E. G., and Kangawa, K. 2003. Identification of tilapia ghrelin and its effects on growth hormone and prolactin release in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 135B: 421-429.

115. Leedom, T.A., Hirano, T., and Grau, E.G. 2003. Effect of blood withdrawal and angiotensin II on prolactin release in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 135A: 155-163.

114. Larson, E. T., Norris, D. O., Grau, E. G., Summers, C.H. 2003. Monoamines stimulate sex reversal in the saddleback wrasse. General and Comparative Endocrinology 130: 289–298

113. Kajimura, S. Uchida, K., Yada, T., Riley, L. G., Byatt, J. C., Collier, R. J., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2003.Stimulation of insulin-like growth factor-I production by recombinant bovine growth hormone in the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 25: 221–230.

112. Eckert, S. M., Hirano, T., Leedom, T. A., Takei, Y., and Grau, E. G. 2003. Effects of angiotensin II and natriuretic peptides of the eel on prolactin and growth hormone release in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 130: 333-339.

111. Uchida, K., S. Kajimura, L. G. Riley, T. Hirano, K. Aida and E. G. Grau. 2003 Effects of fasting on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol 134A: 429-439.

110. Seale, A. P., Richman, N. H., Hirano, T., Cooke, I., and Grau, E. G. 2003. Cell volume increase and extracellularCa2+ are needed for hyposmotically induced prolactin release in tilapia. Am. J. Physiol. 284, C1280-C1289.

109. Seale, A. P., Richman, N. H., Hirano, T., Cooke, I., and Grau, E. G. 2003. Evidence that the signal transduction for osmoreception is mediated by stretch-activated ion channels intilapia. Am. J. Physiol. 284, C1290-C1296.

108. Kaiya, H., Kojima, M., Hosoda, H., Riley, L. G., Hirano, T., Grau, E. G. and Kangawa, K. 2003. Amidated fish ghrelin: purification, cDNA cloning in the Japanese eel and its biological activity. J. Endocrinol. 176, 415-423.

107. Kaiya H., Kojima, M. Hosoda, H., Riley, L. G., Hirano, T., Grau E. G., and Kangawa, K. 2002. A novel growth hormone secretagogue, ghrelin: Identification and biological activity in fish. Fisheries Science, 68 suppl 1, 749-752.

106. Morrey, C. E., Nagahama, Y. and Grau, E. G. 2002.Terminal phase males stimulate ovarian function and inhibit sex change in the protogynous wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey. Zool. Sci. 19: 103-109.

105. Yada, T., Uchida, K., Kajimura, S. Azuma, T. Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2002. Immunomodulatory effects of prolactin and growth hormone in immune system in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. J. Endocrinol. 173, 483-492.

104. Riley, L. G., Richman, N. H., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2002. Activation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis by treatment with 17α-methyltestosterone and seawater rearing in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.127: 285-292.

103. Kajimura, S. Uchida, K., Yada, T., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2002. Effects of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) on growth hormone and prolactin release and gene expression in euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 127: 223-231.

102. Riley, L. G. Seale, A. P., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2002. Ghrelin, growth hormone-releasing factor and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activity polypeptide stimulate growth hormone release from the pituitary of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Zool. Sci. 19, 797-800.

101. Kajimura, S., Moriyama, S., Yada, T., Hirano, T., and Grau E. G. 2002. Effects of cortisol on GH-IGF-I axis in the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. in Proceedings of 21st Conference of European Comparative Endocrinologists, (R. Keller, H. Dircksen, D. Sedlmeier and H. Vaudry, Eds.), Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, pp. 277-282.

100. Kaiya H., Kojima, M. Hosoda, H., Riley, L. G., Hirano, T., Grau E. G., and Kangawa, K. 2002. A novel growth hormone secretagogue, ghrelin: identification and biological activity in fish. Proceedings of International Commemorative Symposium on 70th Anniversary of the Japanese Society of Fisheries Science, in press.

99. Seale, A. P., Riley, L. G., Leedom, T. A., Kajimura, S., Dores, R. M., Hirano, T., and Grau, E. G. 2002. Effects of environmental osmolality on release of prolactin, growth hormone and ACTH from the tilapia pituitary. Gen Comp. Endocrinol. 128: 91-101.

98. Hirano, T., Leedom, T. A., Seale, A. P. and Grau, E. G.. 2002. Facilitative effects of angiotensin II on prolactin cell responses to osmotic stimulation in tilapia. In "Osmoregulation and Drinking in Aquatic and Terrestrial Vertebrates" (eds., N. Hazon and G. Flik), BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford pp 97-108.

97. Leedom T. A., Uchida K., Yada T., Richman N. H. III, Byatt J. C., Collier R. J., Hirano T. and Grau, E. G. 2002. Recombinant bovine growth hormone treatment of tilapia: growth response, metabolic clearance, receptor binding and immunoglobulin production. Aquaculture 207: 359-380.

96. Seale, A. P., Itoh, T., Moriyama, S., Takahashi, A., Kawauchi, H., Sakamoto, T., Fujimoto, M., Riley, L. G., Hirano, T., and Grau, E. G. 2002. Isolation and characterization of a homologue of mammalian prolactin-releasing peptide from the tilapia brain and its effect on prolactin release from the tilapia pituitary. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125: 328-339.

95. Folmar, L., Hemmer, M., Denslow, N., Kroll, K., Cheek, A., Meredith, H., Richman, H. and Grau, E.G. 2002. A comparison of an in vivo fish VTG assay with YES and E-screen to rank “relative estrogenicity” of natural, pharmaceutical and xenoestrogens. Aquatic Toxicology, 60(1-2):101-110.

94. Eckert, S., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2001. Hormonal control of osmoregulation in a stenohaline catfish, Ichtalurus punctatus. Recent Advances in Comparative Endocrinology, J.Y.L. Yu, ed., Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, ROC, pp 347-353.

93. Basu, N., Nakano, T., Grau, E. G. and Iwama, G. K. 2001. The effects of cortisol on heat shock protein 70 levels in two fish species. Gen. and Comp. Endocrinol., 124: 97-105.

92. Yada, T., Azuma, T., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 2001. Effects of hypophysectomy on immune functions in channel catfish, In: Goos H.J.T., Rastogi R.K., Vaudry H., Pierantoni R. (Eds.), Perspective in Comparative Endocrinology. Unity and Diversity, Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, 369-376.

91. Eckert, S. M., Yada, T., Shepherd, B.S., Stetson, M. H., Hirano, T. and Grau E.G., 2001. Hormonal control of osmoregulation in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 122: 270-286.

90. Shepherd, B., Eckert, S., Parhar, I., Vijayan, M., Wakabayashi, I, Hirano, T., Grau, E. G. and Chen, T. (2000) The hexapeptide KP-102 (D-Ala-D-b-Nal-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) stimulates growth hormone release in a cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). J. Endocrinol. 167: R7-R10.

89. Park, R., Shepherd, B. S., Nishioka, R. S., Grau, E. G. and Bern, H. A. 2000. Effects of homologous pituitary hormone treatment on serum insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in hypophysectomized tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, with special reference to a novel IGFBP-20K. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 117: 404-412.

88. Larson, E.T., Norris, D.O., Grau, E.G., and Summers, C.H. 1999. Central monoaminergic changes accompany sex reversal in the saddleback wrasse. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Reproductive Physiology of Fish. Bergen, Norway.

87. Weber, G. M. and Grau, E. G. 1999. Changes in serum concentration and pituitary content of the two prolactins and growth hormone during the reproductive cycle in female tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, compared with fasting. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 124: 323-335.

86. Weber, G. M. and Grau, E. G. 1999. Prolactin in nonmammals. Encyclopedia of Reproduction. Volume 4: 51-60.

85. Shepherd, B. S., Sakamoto, T., Hyodo, S., Nishioka, R. S., Ball, C., Bern, H. A. and Grau, E. G. 1999. Is the primitive regulation of pituitary prolactin (tPRL177 and tPRL188) secretion and gene expression in the euryhaline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) hypothalamic or environmental? J. Endocrinol. 161: 121-129.

84. Meredith, H. O., Richman, N. H., Collier, J. T., Seale, A. P., Riley, L. G., Ball, C. H., Shimoda, S. K., Stetson, M. H. and Grau, E. G. 1999. pesticide effects on prolactin release from the rostral pars distalis in vitro and their effects on growth in vivo in the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), In: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: 8th Volume, ASTM STP 1364, D.Henshel, Ed., American Society for Testing and Materials.

83. Morrey, C. Nakamura, M., Kobayashi, T., Grau, E. G. and Nagahama, Y. 1998. P450scc-like immunoreactivity throughout gonadal restructuring in the protogynous hermaphrodite, Thalassoma duperrey. Int. J. Devel. Biol. 42: 811-816.

82. Graham, C. R., Richman, N. H., Shimoda, S. K. and Grau, E. G. 1999. Changes in taurine plasma and tissue concentrations during periods of osmotic stress in the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Toxicology Information Response Cent., Oak Ridge, TN, Barry, T. (ed); Barton, B. (ed); MacKinlay, D.(ed) Stress in fish., pp. 57-69.

81. Parhar, I. S. Nagahama, Y., Grau, E. G., Ross, R. M. 1998. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural identification of pituitary cell types in the protogynous Thalassoma duperrey during adult sexual ontogeny. Zool. Sci. 15: 263-275.

80. DiStefano, J. J., Ron, B., Nguyen, T. N., Weber, G. and Grau, E. G. 1998. 3,5,3’-Triiodothyronine (T3) clearance and T3-glucuronide (T3G) appearance kinetics in plasma of freshwater-reared male tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 111: 123-140 (1998).

79. Morgan, J. D., Sakamoto, T., Grau, E. G., and Iwama, G. K. 1997. Physiological and respiratory responses of the mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) to salinity acclimation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 117A: 391-398.

78. Shepherd, B.S., Richman, N.H. and Grau, E.G. 1997. Hormonal, environmental and nutritional regulation of growth in teleosts: developments and prospectives in tilapia aquaculture. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Fisheries and Ocean Industrial Development for Productivity Enhancement of the Coastal Waters: Genetics in Aquaculture. Research Center For Ocean Industrial Development, National Fisheries University of Pusan, Korea, pp. 103-136. May 22-24, 1996.

77. Weber, G. M., Powell, J. F. F., Park, M., Fisher, W. H., Rivier, J. E., Nanakorn, U., Parhar, I. S., Grau, E. G. and Sherwood, N. M. 1997. Primary structures for three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) molecules and evidence that GnRH functions as a prolactin-releasing factor in tilapia. J. Endocrinol. 155: 121-132.

76. Shepherd, B.S., Ron, B., Burch, A., Sparks, R., Richman III, N. H., Shimoda, S. K., Stetson, M. H., Lim C. and Grau, E. G. 1997. Effects of salinity, dietary level of protein and 17 alpha methyltestosterone on growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (tPRL177 and tPRL188) levels in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 17: 279-288.

75. Sakamoto, T., Shepherd, B. S., Madsen, S. S., Richman, H., Siharath, K., Nishioka, R. S., Bern, H. A. and Grau, E.G. 1997. Osmoregulatory actions of growth hormone and prolactin in an advanced teleost. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 106: 95-101.

74. Vijayan, M.M., Pereira, C., Grau, E. G., and Iwama, G. K. 1997. Metabolic responses associated with confinement stress in tilapia: The role of cortisol. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 116C: 89-95.

73. Shepherd, B. S., Sakamoto, T., Mori, I., Nishioka, R. S., Richman III, N. H., Madsen, S., Hirano, T., Bern, H. A. and Grau, E.G. 1997. Somatotropic actions of the homologous growth hormone (tGH) and prolactins in the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 94: 2068-2072.

72. Richman, N. H., Graham, C.R., Weber, G. M., Stetson, M. H., and Grau, E. G. 1997. Mechanisms mediating the prolactin cell response to changes in osmolality in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. pp. 1005-1009, In: “Advances in Comparative Endocrinology”, Proceedings of the XIII International Congress of Comparative Endocrinology (S. Kawashima and S. Kikuyama, Eds.), Yokohama (Japan), November 17-21, 1997 Nonduzzi Editore, Bologna Italy, 1837p.

71. Richman, N.H., Shimoda, S.K., Ball, C.H. and Grau, E.G. 1996. Environmental endocrine disrupters: bioaccumulation and combinatory effects. Proceeding of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFW) Conference, Honolulu, HI July 22-26, 1996.

70. Kelly, A.M., Kohler, C.C. and Grau, E.G. 1996. A mammalian growth hormone-releasing hormone increases serum growth hormone levels and somatic growth at suboptimal temperatures in tilapia. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 27:384-401

69. Vijayan, M.M., Morgan, J. D., Sakamoto, T., Grau, E. G. and Iwama, G. K. 1996. Food deprivation affects seawater acclimation in tilapia: hormonal and metabolic changes. J. Exp. Biology 199:2467-2475.

68. Weber, G. M. and Grau, E. G. 1995. Changes in serum and pituitary levels of prolactin and growth hormone with reproduction and fasting in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. pp. 40, In "Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Reproductive Physiology of Fish II (F. W. Goetz and P. Thomas, eds.), University of Texas, Austin, U.S.A., July 2-8, 1995. Fish Symp. 95, pubs., Austin U.S.A., 389 p

67. Ron, B., Shimoda, S. K., Iwama, G. K. and Grau, E. G. 1995. relationships among ration, salinity, 17α-methyltestosterone and growth in the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Aquaculture, 135:185-193.

66. Yada, T., Grau, E. G and Hirano, T. 1995. Suppression of prolactin release in vitro from the rainbow trout pituitary, with special reference to the structural arrangement of the pituitary cells. Zool. Sci. 12: 231-238.

65. Yoshikawa-Ebesu, J. S. M., Borski, R. J., Richman, N. H. and Grau, E. G. 1995. The effects of acclimation salinity and in vitro medium osmotic pressure on the incorporation of 3H-leucine into the two prolactins of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. J. Exp. Zool. 271: 331-339.

64. Yada, T., Hirano, T. and Grau, E. G. 1994. Changes in plasma levels of the two prolactins and growth hormone during adaptation to different salinities in the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 93: 214-223.

63. Borski, R. J., Yoshikawa, J., Madsen, S., Nishioka, R. S. Zabetian, C., Bern, H. A. and Grau, E. G. 1994. Effects of environmental salinity on pituitary growth hormone content and cell activity in the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 95: 483-494.

62. Weber, G. M., Farrar, E. S., Tom, C. K. F. and Grau, E. G. 1994. Changes in whole-body thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations and total content during early development and metamorphosis of the toad, Bufo marinus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 94:62-71.

61. Grau, E. G. Richman, N. H. Borski, R. J. 1994. Osmoreception and a simple endocrine reflex of the prolactin cell of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. in Perspectives in Comparative Endocrinology, Davey, K. G., Peter, R. E. and Tobe, S. S. (Editors) National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. 251-256. National Research Council of Canada.

60. Okimoto, D. K., DiStefano, J. J., Kuwaye, T. T., Ron, B., Weber, G. M., Nguyen, T. T. and Grau, E. G. 1994. On plasma volume measurement and the effect of experimental stress in male tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, maintained in fresh water. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 12: 431-438.

59. Ayson, F. G., Kaneko, T. Tagawa, M. Hasegawa, S., Grau, E. G., Nishioka, R. S., King, D. S., Bern, H. A. and Hirano, T. 1993. Effects of acclimation to hypertonic environment on plasma and pituitary levels of two prolactins and growth hormone in two species of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 89: 138-148.

58. Okimoto, D. K., Weber, G. M. and Grau, E. G. 1993. The effects of thyroxine and propylthiouracil treatment on changes in body form during the posthatching thyroxine surge of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Zoological Science, 10: 803-811.

57. Ayson, F. G., Tagawa, M., Kaneko, T., Hasegawa, S., Grau, E. G., Nishioka, R. S., Bern, H. A. and Hirano, T. 1993. Homologous radioimmunoassays for tilapia prolactins and growth hormone. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 89:138-148.

56. Borski, R. J., Hansen, M. U., Nishioka, R. S. and Grau, E. G. 1993. Differential processing of the two prolactins of the tilapia, (Oreochromis mossambicus) in relation to environmental salinity. J. Exp. Zool. 264: 46-54.

55. Kuwaye, T. T., Okimoto, D. K., Shimoda, S. S., Howerton, R. D., Lin, Hao-Ren, Pang, P. K. T. and Grau, E. G. 1993. Effect of 17 Alpha-methyltestosterone on the growth of the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, in fresh water and in seawater. Aquaculture 113: 137-152.

54. Grau, E. G. and Bern, H. A. 1992. Marine resource development: enhancement of fish growth and development. California Sea Grant College publication, University of California, La Jolla, 13 pp.

53. Rodgers, B. D., Helms, L. M. H. and Grau, E. G. 1992. Effects of fasting, medium glucose, and amino acid concentrations on prolactin and growth hormone release, in vitro, from the pituitary of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 86: 344-351.

52. Weber, G. and Grau, E. G. 1992. Patterns of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in serum and follicular-bound oocytes of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, during oogenesis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 85:392-404.

51. Howerton, R. D., Okimoto, D. K., Helms, L. M. H. and Grau, E. G. 1992. The effect of orally administered 17a-methyltestosterone and triiodothyronine on growth and proximate body composition of seawater-adapted tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 23: 123-128.

50. Hourigan, T. F., Nakamura, M., Nagahama, Y., Yamauchi, K. and Grau, E. G. 1991. Histology and ultrastructure and in vitro steroidogenesis of the testis of two male phenotypes of the protogynous fish, Thalassoma duperrey (Labridae). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 83: 193-217.

49. Helms, L. M. H., Grau, E. G. and Borski, R. J. 1991. Effects of osmotic pressure and somatostatin on the cAMP messenger system of the osmosensitive prolactin cell of a teleost fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 83:111-117.

48. Okimoto, D. K., Tagawa, M., Koide, Y., Grau, E. G. and Hirano, T. 1991. Effects of various adenohyophysial hormones of chum salmon on thyroxine release in vitro in the medaka, Oryzias latipes. Zoological Science 8: 567-573.

47. Richman, N. H., Ford, C. A., Helms, L. M. H., Cooke, I. M., Pang, P. K. T. and Grau, E.G. 1991. The loss of 45Ca++ associated with prolactin release from the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) rostral pars distalis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 83:56- 67.

46. Fast, A. W., Katase, S. A., Grau, E. G. and Barclay, D. K. 1991. Seawater maturation and spawning of rainbow trout. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 53: 47-49.

45. Borski, R. J., Helms, L. M. H., Richman, N. H. and Grau, E. G. 1991. Cortisol rapidly reduces prolactin release, and cyclic AMP and 45Ca++ accumulation in the cichlid fish pituitary, Oreochromis mossambicus, in vitro. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 88: 2758-2762.

44. Grau, E. G. and Helms, M. H. 1990. The tilapia prolactin cell - twenty-five years of investigation. Progress in Comparative Endocrinology: A. Epple, C. G. Scanes, M. H. Stetson, Eds. Wiley-Liss, N. Y. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 342: 534-540.

43. Richman, N. H., Helms, L. M. H., Ford, C. A., Beneshin, C., Pang, P. K. T., Cooke, I. M. and Grau, E. G. 1990. Effects of depolarizing concentrations of K+ and reduced osmotic pressure on calcium accumulation by the rostral pars distalis of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 77: 292-297.

42. Grau, E. G. and Helms, L. M. H. 1989. The tilapia prolactin cell: A model for stimulus-secretion coupling. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 7: 11-19.

41. Nishioka, R. S., Grau, E. G., Bern, H. A., Lin, R. J., Hubbell, P., Knutson, A. C., Hiser, C., Maria, D., Rightmeir, M. and Jochimsen W. 1989. Effect of lunar-phased releases on adult recovery of coho salmon from Trinity and Iron Gate hatcheries in California. Aquaculture 82: 355-365.

40. Reshkin, S. J., Grover, M. L., Howerton, R. D., Grau, E. G. and Ahearn, G. A. 1989. Dietary hormone modification of growth, intestinal ATPase activity and glucose transport in the omnivorous teleost, Oreochromis mossambicus. Amer. J. Physiol. 256: E610-E618.

39. Hoffman, K. and Grau, E. G. 1989. Daytime changes in oocyte development in the saddleback wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey. J. Fish Biology 34: 529-546.

38. Nakamura, M., Hourigan, T., Yamauchi, K., Nagahama, Y. and Grau, E. G. 1989. Histological and ultrastructural evidence for the role of gonadal steroid hormones in sex change in the protogynous wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey. Environ. Biol. Fishes 24: 117-136.

37. Swanson, P., Grau, E. G., Helms, L. M. H. and Dickhoff, W. W. 1988. Thyrotropic activity of salmon pituitary glycoprotein hormones in the Hawaiian parrotfish thyroid in vitro. J. Exp. Zool. 245: 194-199.

36. Lin, R. J., Cross, T. F., Mills, C. P. R., Nishioka, R. S., Grau, E. G. and Bern, H. A. 1988. Changes in plasma thyroxine levels during smoltification in hatchery reared one-year and two-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 74: 369-378.

35. Eales, J. G., Grau, E. G., McNabb, F.M.A. and Specker, J. L. 1988. Introduction to the symposium: Comparative endocrinology of the thyroid. Amer. Zool. 28: 295-296.

34. Grau, E. G. 1988. Environmental influences on thyroid function in teleost fish. Amer. Zool. 28: 329-335.

33. Nakamura, M., Nagahama, Y., Adachi, S., Yamauchi, K., Hourigan, T. and Grau, E. G. 1987. The role of steroid hormones in sex change of the saddleback wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey. Proc. 1st Asia and Oceania Congress of Comparative Endocrinology, pp. 210- 211.

32. Grau, E. G. 1987. Thyroid hormones and osmoregulation: in Vertebrate Endocrinology: Fundamentals and Biomedical Implications, P. K. T. Pang and M. P. Schreibman, eds. Academic Press, N. Y. Volume 2: 85-102.

31. Nishioka, R. S., Grau, E. G., Lai, K. V. and Bern, H. A. 1987. Effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone on the physiology and morphology of the thyroid gland in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 3: 63-71.

30. Helms, L. M. H., Grau, E. G., Shimoda, S. K., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. 1987. Studies on the regulation of growth hormone release from the proximal pars distalis of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, in vitro. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 65: 48-55.

29. Grau, E. G., Ford, C. A., Helms, L. M. H., Shimoda, S. K. and Cooke, I. M. 1987. Somatostatin and altered medium osmotic pressure elicit rapid changes in prolactin release from the rostral pars distalis of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, in vitro. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 65: 12-18.

28. Grau, E. G., Shimoda, S. K., Ford, C. A., Helms, L. M. H., Cooke, I. M. and Pang, P. K. T. 1986. The role of calcium in prolactin release from the pituitary of a teleost fish in vitro. Endocrinology 119: 2848-2855.

27. Barry, T. P. and Grau, E. G. 1986. Estradiol-17B and thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulate prolactin release from the pituitary gland of a teleost fish in vitro. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 62: 306-314.

26. Smith, C. J., and Grau, E.G. 1986. Ultrastructural changes in the parrotfish thyroid after in vitro stimulation with bovine thyrotropin. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 1: 153-162.

25. Grau, E. G., Helms, L. M. H., Shimoda, S. K., Ford, C. A., Le Grand, J. and Yamauchi, K. 1986. The thyroid gland of the Hawaiian parrotfish and its use as an in vitro model system. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 61: 100-108.

24. Nishioka, R. S., Grau, E. G. and Bern, H. A. 1985. In vitro release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 60: 90-94.

23. Grau, E. G., Nishioka, R. S., Young, G. and Bern, H. A. 1985. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary of three teleost fish species. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 59: 350-357.

22. Brown, C. L., Grau, E. G. and Stetson, M. H. 1985. Functional specificity of gonadotropin and thyrotropin in Fundulus heteroclitus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 58: 252-258.

21. Grau, E. G., Brown, C. L. and Stetson, M. H. 1985. Photoperiodic regulation of thyroid responsiveness to TSH in Fundulus heteroclitus. J. Exp. Zool. 234: 199-205.

20. Lin, R. J., Rivas, R. J., Nishioka, R. S., Grau, E. G. and Bern, H. A. 1985. Effects of feeding triiodothyronine (T3) on thyroxin (T4) levels in the steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri. Aquaculture 45: 133-145.

19. Grau, E. G., Fast, A. W., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. 1985. The effects of transfer to novel conditions on blood thyroxine in coho salmon. Aquaculture 45: 377.

18. Grau, E. G., Fast, A. W., Nishioka, R. S., Bern, H. A., Barclay, D. K. and Katase, S. A. 1985. Variations in thyroid hormone levels and in performance in the seawater challenge test accompanying development in coho salmon raised in Hawaii. Aquaculture 45: 121-132.

17. Grau, E. G., Nishioka, R. S., Specker, J. L. and Bern, H. A. 1985. Endocrine involvement in the smoltification of salmon. in Current Trends in Comparative Endocrinology (eds. B Lofts and W. N. Holmes). Hong Kong University Press, pp 491-493.

16. Specker, J. L., Di Stefano, J. J., Grau, E. G., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. 1984. Development-associated changes in thyroxine kinetics in juvenile salmon. Endocrinology 115: 399-406.

15. Grau, E. G., Prunet, P., Gross, T., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. 1984. Bioassay for salmon prolactin using hypophysectomized Fundulus heteroclitus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 53: 78-85.

14. Nishioka, R. S., Young, G., Grau, E. G. and Bern, H. A. 1983. Environmental, behavioral and endocrine basis for lunar-phased hatchery releases of salmon. Second North Pacific Aquaculture Symposium, Tokai University, Tokyo, Japan. pp 161- 172.

13. Grau, E. G. 1982. Calcium and prolactin secretion by the tilapia pituitary. In: Comparative Endocrinology of Calcium Regulation (C. Oguro and P. K. T. Pang, eds.), pp. 27-31.

12. Nishioka, R. S., Bern, H. A., Lai, K. V., Nagahama, Y. and Grau, E. G. 1982. Changes in the endocrine organs of coho salmon during normal and abnormal smoltification: An electron microscope study. Aquaculture 28: 21-38.

11. Grau, E. G. 1982. Is the lunar cycle a factor timing the onset of salmonid migration? Proceedings of the Symposium on Salmon and Trout Migratory Behavior (E. L. Brannon and E. O. Salo, eds.), pp. 184-189. College of Fisheries, Univ. of Washington, Seattle.

10. Grau, E. G., Specker, J. L., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. 1982. Factors determining the occurrence of the surge in thyroid activity in salmon during smoltification. Aquaculture 28: 49-57.

9. Grau, E. G., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. 1982. Effects of somatostatin and urotensin II and interactions between somatostatin, osmotic pressure, Ca++, and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in prolactin release in vitro. Endocrinology 110(3): 910-915.

8. Nagahama. Y., Adachi, S., Tashiro, F. and Grau, E. G. 1982. Some endocrine factors affecting the development of seawater tolerance during the parr-smolt transformation of the amago salmon, Oncorhynchus rhodurus. Aquaculture 28: 81-90.

7. Bern, H. A., Nishioka, R. S., Grau, E. G., Lai, K. V., Collie, N., Loretz, C. A., Richman, N. H. and Gross, T. 1981. Endocrinology of normal and abnormal salmon smoltification and adaptation to seawater. California Sea Grant College Program Biennial Report, 1978-1980. Institute of Marine Resources, Univ. of California, La Jolla, pp. 108-110.

6. Grau, E. G., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. 1981. Effects of osmotic pressure and calcium ion on prolactin release in vitro from the rostral pars distalis of the tilapia, Sarotherodon mossambicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 45: 405-408.

5. Grau, E. G., Dickhoff, W. W., Nishioka, R. S., Bern, H. A. and Folmar, L. C. 1981. Lunar phasing of the thyroxine surge preparatory to seaward migration of salmonid fish. Science 211: 607-609.

4. Stetson, M. H. and Grau, E. G. 1980. Hypothalamo-adenohypophysial relationships among vertebrates. In: Evolution of Vertebrate Endocrine Systems (P. K. T. Pang and A. Epple, eds.), pp 59-84. Texas Tech. Univ. Press, Lubbock.

3. Grau, E. G. and Stetson, M. H. 1979. Growth hormone is thyrotropic in Fundulus heteroclitus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 39: 1-8.

2. Grau, E. G. and Stetson, M. H. 1977. The effects of prolactin and TSH on thyroid function in Fundulus heteroclitus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 33: 329-335.

1. Grau, E. G. and Stetson, M. H. 1977. Pituitary autotransplants in Fundulus heteroclitus: Effect on thyroid function. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 32: 427-431.

 

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Number of times papers were cited (Source: Citation Index)

 

Year By Year CumulativeTotal
2007 262 2707
2006 215 2437
2005 211 2222
2004 191 2001
2003 204 1810
9 months 2002 110 1606
2001 103 1496
2000 91 1393
1999 97 1302
1998 79 1205
1997 82 1126
1996 65 1044
1995 52 979
1994 89 927
1993 61 838
1992 76 777
1991 79 701
1990 82 622
1989 85 540
1988 85 455
1987 89 370
1986 54 281
1985 75 226
1984 48 151
1983 32 103
1982 45 71
1981 13 26
1980 9 13
1979 3 4
1978 1 1

 

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