2001 Edwin W. Pauley Summer Program in Marine Biology

Cetacean Audiometrics

June - August, 2001

The purpose of the 2001 Edwin W. Pauley Summer Program in Marine Biology was to teach what was then known of hearing measurement using evoked auditory potentials of marine mammals and to develop new procedures for testing large whale hearing.  Procedures were being developed by Alexander Supin and Paul Nachtigall to rapidly measure dolphin hearing and the idea was to improve those techniques to apply to wild, captive and stranded whales and dolphins of all sizes.  Students and professors all spent time in the classrooms and the laboratory learning and practicing the Auditory Evoked Potential hearing procedures along with additional anatomy and hearing background lectures and practical experiences.  The hearing of all the whales and dolphins at the Marine Mammal Research Program were measured.  During the last week an infant sperm whale happened to strand on the Kona coast of the Big Island.  The whole group had the opportunity to fly to Kona and work with the sperm whale.  Unfortunately it died and we spent the night conducting the post-mortem dissection but fortunately we learned a great deal about sperm whale anatomy.   It is hard to fully describe the total accomplishments of the program.  Dr. Peter Madsen, one of the students,  now a very successful scientist recently wrote..."I cannot praise the Pauley Summer Program (PSP) enough. I attended the PSP on hearing in large whales convened by Dr. P. Nachtigall in 2001, and the three weeks interacting with the best scientists in the field was a defining moment in my own career".  That summer program changed the way that hearing is measured in whales and dolphins and has allowed so many new directions in marine mammal hearing that it is impossible to describe them all.  Some of the publications stemming from this summer program are listed below.

 

FACULTY

Dr. Whitlow Au, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Manoa, USA
Dr. William Burgess, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, USA
Dr. Roger Gentry, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, USA
Dr. Ron Kastelein, Harderwijk Research, Netherlands
Dr. Darlene Ketten, Harvard Medical School and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
Dr. Alla Mass, Severtsov Institute of Ecology, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Dr. Bertel Mohl, Aarhus University, Denmark
Dr. Paul Nachtigall, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Manoa, USA
Dr. Jeff Pawloski, University of Hawaii, USA
Dr. Sam H. Ridgway, University of California, San Diego and US Navy Marine Mammal Program, USA
Dr. Alexander Ya. Supin, Severtsov Institute of Ecology, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Dr. Jeanette Thomas, Western Illinois University, USA
note: lead faculty in bold

 

STUDENT PARTICIPANTS

Jennifer Hammock, Harvard University and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
Marina Ivancic, University of California, San Diego, USA
David Kastak,University of California, Santa Cruz, USA
Peter T. Madsen, Aarhus University, Denmark
Jennifer Philips, University of Hawaii, USA
Colleen Reichmuch, University of California, Santa Cruz, USA
Kristen Taylor, University of Hawaii, USA
Don Tremel, Western Illinois Univeristy, USA
Michelle Yuen, University of Hawaii, USA

 

PROGRAM REPORT

None available for this program but see publications list below.

VIDEO GALLERY

Frame of beginning of an evoked potential trial with Boris.

The beginning of an evoked potential trial with Boris (119 KB).

The end of an evoked potential trial with Boris.

The end of an evoked potential trial with Boris (119 KB).

Jeff Pawloski placing the probes on Boris.

Jeff Pawloski placing the probes on Boris (87 KB).

Boris in the hoop during the evoked potential experiment.

Boris in the hoop during the evoked potential experiment (119 KB).

Trainer Jeff Pawloski demonstrates an Evoked Auditory Potential setup with Boris.

Trainer Jeff Pawloski demonstrates an Evoked Auditory Potential setup with Boris (119 KB).

Boris gets in the hoop for an EAP demo.

Boris gets in the hoop for an EAP demo (111 KB).

 

 

 

PHOTO GALLERY

Participants learn how an audiogram is obtained.

Participants learn how an audiogram is obtained.

Boris, the bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), takes part in an acoustic test.

Boris, the bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), takes part in an acoustic test.

Researchers record evoked auditory potentials.

Researchers record evoked auditory potentials.

Closeup of EAP trials.

Closeup of EAP trials.

Students listen to a lecture on marine mammal acoustics.

Students listen to a lecture on marine mammal acoustics.

Trainer Jeff Pawloski gives a presentation.

Trainer Jeff Pawloski gives a presentation.

The group hears a talk on pinniped acoustics.

The group hears a talk on pinniped acoustics.

Presentation by Jeanette Thomas, Western Illinois University.

Presentation by Jeanette Thomas, Western Illinois University.

Group Picture: Kristen Taylor, Ron Kastelein, Alla Mass, Paul Nachtigall, Sasha Supin.

Group Picture: Kristen Taylor, Ron Kastelein, Alla Mass, Paul Nachtigall, Sasha Supin.

Walrus Audiogram Presentation by Ron Kastelein, Marine Mammal Park, Holland.

Walrus Audiogram Presentation by Ron Kastelein, Marine Mammal Park, Holland.

Evoked Auditory Potential Presentation by Sasha Supin, Russian Academy of Sciences.

Evoked Auditory Potential Presentation by Sasha Supin, Russian Academy of Sciences.

Presentation by Don Tremmel, Curator, Shedd Aquarium, Chicago.

Presentation by Don Tremmel, Curator, Shedd Aquarium, Chicago.

Cetacean Ear Anatomy - Darlene Ketten.

Cetacean Ear Anatomy - Darlene Ketten.

Tursiops head dissection: preparation.

Tursiops head dissection: preparation.

Tursiops head dissection.

Tursiops head dissection.

Tursiops head dissection.

Tursiops head dissection.

Tursiops head dissection.

Tursiops head dissection.

Tursiops eye dissection by Alla Mass, Moscow University.

Tursiops eye dissection by Alla Mass, Moscow University.

Presentation by Darlene Ketten, Harvard University and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute.

Presentation by Darlene Ketten, Harvard University and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute.

Paul Nachtigall (MMRP/HIMB) presentation.

Paul Nachtigall (MMRP/HIMB) presentation.

Presentation by Sasha Supin.

Presentation by
Sasha Supin.

Sasha Supin in test <br />shack during evoked potential experiment at MMRP pens.

Sasha Supin in test
shack during evoked potential experiment at
MMRP pens.

Evoked potential experiment at MMRP pens.

Evoked potential experiment at
MMRP pens.

Pinniped Evoked Potential Presentation by Darlene Ketten.

Pinniped Evoked Potential Presentation by Darlene Ketten.

Pinniped EAP Presentation.

Pinniped EAP Presentation.

Training for Evoked Potential Experiments Presentation by Jeff Pawloski (MMRP).

Training for Evoked Potential Experiments Presentation by Jeff Pawloski (MMRP).

Message from Ron Kastelein in Holland.

Message from Ron Kastelein in Holland.

Peter Madsen leading an informal acoustic discussion.

Peter Madsen leading an informal acoustic discussion.

Alla Mass holding Tursiops eye.

Alla Mass holding
Tursiops eye.

Darlene Ketten dissecting Tursiops ear.

Darlene Ketten dissecting Tursiops ear.

Darlene Ketten holding the inner ear of Tursiops.

Darlene Ketten holding the inner ear of Tursiops.

Close-up of Tursiops inner ear.

Close-up of Tursiops
inner ear.

Evoked Potential Demonstration at MMRP pens.

Evoked Potential Demonstration at
MMRP pens.

Sasha Supin Demonstration of Equipment at MMRP pens.

Sasha Supin Demonstration of Equipment at
MMRP pens.

Jeff Pawloski Demonstration of Evoked Potential Experiment.

Jeff Pawloski Demonstration of Evoked Potential Experiment.

Demonstration of Evoked Potential Experiment.

Demonstration of Evoked Potential Experiment.

Close-up of Sirnose in stationing cone.

Close-up of Sirnose in stationing cone.

BJ with electrodes for evoked potential experiment.

BJ with electrodes for evoked potential experiment.

Probes being placed on Sirnose for evoked potential experiment.

Probes being placed on Sirnose for evoked potential experiment.

Sirnose stationed in position for evoked potential experiment.

Sirnose stationed in position for evoked potential experiment.

Boris in hoop/test apparatus for evoked potenials.

Boris in hoop/test apparatus for evoked potenials.

The jawphone projects sound directly to the lower jaw of a dolphin with suction cups.

The jawphone projects sound directly to the lower jaw of a dolphin with suction cups.

Boris wearing both the electrodes and jawphone.

Boris wearing both the electrodes and jawphone.

BORIS!

BORIS!

SLP Staff (Steph Vlachos, Dr. Gregg Levine, Mike Osborn) introduced to the group.

SLP Staff (Steph Vlachos, Dr. Gregg Levine, Mike Osborn) introduced to
the group.

Paka Nishimura, Curator SLP, is introduced to the group.

Paka Nishimura, Curator SLP, is introduced to
the group.

Demonstration of audiogram training with M. Osborn.

Demonstration of audiogram training with
Mike Osborn.

S. Valchos introducing Keauhou, a melon-headed whale, to the group.

Steph Valchos introducing Keauhou, a melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), to the group.

Meeting the wholphin (Tursiops truncatus/Pseudorca crassidens), Kekaimalu.

Marina Ivancic (UC-Davis) and Carrie DeLong up-close with the wholphin (Tursiops truncatus / Pseudorca crassidens), Kekaimalu, and SLP trainer Kiana Pugh.

Meeting the wholphin (Tursiops truncatus/Pseudorca crassidens), Kekaimalu.

Kristine Hiltunen (NSF Student) and Mark Deakos (Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Lab) with Kekaimalu and her trainer, Kiana Pugh.

S. Vlachos demonstrating training behaviors with one of the monk seals.

Steph Vlachos demonstrating training behaviors with one of the monk seals.

Sasha Supin analyzes evoked potential data collected earlier at the MMRP Pens.

Sasha Supin analyzes evoked potential data collected earlier at the MMRP Pens.

Sasha Supin analyzes evoked potential data

Sasha Supin analyzes evoked potential data.

Kina gets probes for an auditory experiment.

Kina gets probes for an auditory experiment.

Kina, the Institute's False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

Kina, HIMB's False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

Leaving HIMB for Kona to try to help and study a stranded infant sperm whale.

Braun drawing a blood sample from the sperm whale.

Sasha Supin measures hearing of sperm whale.

Ridgway checking the sperm whale.

Peter Madsen and Bertel Mohl.

A sad sight.

Monkey lips.

Acoustic lenses.

 

PUBLICATIONS

A list of publications that directly or indirectly resulted from scientific concepts, training, or research experiences during the Pauley Summer Program.

  1. André, M. and Nachtigall, P.E. (2007) Electrophysiological measurements of hearing in marine mammals Aquatic Mammals, 33 (1), 1-6
  1. Aubauer, R. Au ,W W. L., and Nachtigall P. E. (2004) Acoustic Simulation of Phantom Target Echoes in Dolphin Behavioral Experiments.  In: Thomas, J., Moss, C., and Vater, M.: Echolocation in bats and dolphins, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 514-518
  2. Ibsen, S.D., Au, W.W.L. Nachtigall, P.E. (2007) Changes in signal parameters over time for an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin performing the same target discrimination task. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122, 2446-2450
  3. Madsen P.T 2002. Sperm whale Sound Production" PhD thesis, University of Aarhus, Denmark
  1. Madsen P.T., M. Wahlberg and B. Møhl (2002), “Male sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) acoustics in a high latitude habitat: implications for echolocation and communication” Behav. Ecol. Sociol. 53: 31-41.
  1. Madsen, P.T., Carder, D.A., Au, W. W., Nachtigall, P.E., Mohl, B., and Ridgway, S.H. (2003). "Sound production in neonate sperm whales." J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 113(6), 2988-2991
  1. Madsen, P.T., Kerr I., and Payne, R. (2004) “Echolocation clicks of two free-ranging, oceanic delphinids with different food preferences: False killer whales (Pseudorca crasidens) and Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus)” J. Exp. Biol., 207, 1811-1823.
  1. Madsen, P.T., Kerr I., and Payne, R. (2004) “Source parameter estimates of echolocation clicks from free ranging pygmy killer whales (Feresa attenuata)” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116(4): 1909-1912
  1. Madsen P.T., Johnson M., Aguilar DeSoto N., Zimmer W.M.X, and Tyack P. (2005), “Biosonar performance of foraging beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris.” J. Exp. Biol.. 208: 181-194.
  1. Madsen P.T., Carder D., Bedholm K., and Ridgway S., (2005), “Porpoise clicks from a sperm whale nose – convergent evolution of 130 kHz sonar pulses?” Bioacoustics 15: 195-206
  1. Madsen P.T. and Wahlberg M. (2007). “Recordings and quantitative analysis of clicks from echolocating toothed whales in the wild”. Deep Sea Research II. 54: 1421-1444
  1. Møhl B., Madsen P.T., Wahlberg M., Au W.W.L., Nachtigall P. and Ridgway S. (2002), “Sound transmission in the spermaceti complex of a recently expired sperm whale calf”, Acoustical Research Letters Online, 4(1): 19-24.
  1. Møhl, B., Wahlberg, M., Madsen, P.T., Heerfordt, A., and Lund, A. (2003). "The monopulsed nature of sperm whale clicks." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 114(2), 1143-1154.
  1. Mooney, T.A., Nachtigall, P.E., and Au, W.W.L . (2004)  Target strengths of a nylon monofilament and an acoustically enhanced gillnet: Prediction of biosonar detection ranges.   Aquatic Mammals, 30 (2), 220-226.
  1. Mooney, T.A., Nachtigall, P.E., and Yuen, M.E., (2006) Rapid auditory evoked responses and high temporal resolution in a Risso’s dolphin, Grampus griseus. Journal of Comparative Physiology-A 192, 373-380
  1. Mooney, T.A., Au, W.W.L.,  Nachtigall, P.E. and  Trippel, E.A. (2007) Acoustic and stiffness properties of gillnets as they relate to small cetacean bycatch.  ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64, 1-9.
  1. Mooney, T.A.,Nachtigall, P.E. Castellote, M., Taylor, K.A., Pacini, A.F. and Estaban, J.A. (2008) Hearing pathways and directional sensitivity of the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology. 362, 108-116.
  1. Mooney T.A., Nachtigall, P.E.  Breese, M.  Vlachos, S. and Au, W.L. (2009), Predicting
    temporary threshold shifts in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): the effects of noise level and duration. J Acous Soc Am , 125, 1816-1826.
  1. Mooney, T.A.  Pacini, A. and Nachtigall, P.E. (2009) False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) echolocation and acoustic disruption: Implications for long-line bycatch and depredation. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 87, 726-733
  2. Mooney, T.A., Nachtigall, P.E., Miller, L., Rasmussen, M., and Taylor, K.A. (2009) Auditory temporal resolution of a wild white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris ) Journal of Comparative Physiology  A,  726-733
  3. Mooney T.A., Nachtigall, P.E. and  Vlachos, S. (2009) Sonar induced temporary hearing  loss in dolphins. Biology Letters , 5, 565-567
  1. Muller, M.W., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P.E., Allen, J.S. and Breese, M. (2007) Phantom echo highlight amplitude and temporal difference resolutions of an echolocating  dolphin Tursiops truncatus.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122, 2255-2262
  1. Mulsow, J. and Reichmuth, C. (2007) tic Aquatic Mammals, 33:122-131.
  1. Nachtigall, P.E., Pawlowski, J. L., and Au W.W.L. (2003) Temporary threshold shifts and recovery following noise exposure in the Atlantic Bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113(6) 3425-3429
  1. Nachtigall, P.E. (2004) Low Frequency Hearing in Odontocetes and Evoked Auditory Potentials Measuring Recovery from Temporary threshold shifts in the Bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus).  Polarforschung, 72, 75-76.
  1. Nachtigall, P.E. and Supin, A. Ya. (2004) Measuring Hearing with Auditory Brainstem Responses. Active Sonar Workshop Proceedings, Las Palmas, Canary Islands: European Cetacean Society Special Publication Number 42, 48-52.
  1. Nachtigall, P.E., Supin, A.Ya. Pawloski, J. L and Au, W.W.L. (2004)  Temporary threshold shifts after noise exposure in a bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) measured using evoked auditory potentials. Marine Mammal Science, 20(4), 673-687
  1. Nachtigall, P.E., Yuen, M.E., Mooney, T.A., and Taylor, K.A. 2005 Hearing measurements from a stranded infant Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 208:4181-4188
  1. Nachtigall, P.E. Studying Sensory Systems in Dolphins and Whales  (2007) Proceedings of the Discussion Group on Reducing Cetacean Interactions with Pelagic Longline Gear of the Third International Fishers Forum, Yokohama Japan
  1. Nachtigall, P.E., Mooney, T.A., Taylor, K.A., and Yuen, M.L. (2007)  Hearing and Auditory Evoked Potential Methods  Applied to Odontocete Cetaceans. Aquatic Mammals, 33 (1), 6-13
  1. Nachtigall, P.E., Supin A. Ya, Amundin, M.,  Röken, B., Møller, T.,  Mooney, T.A.,Taylor, K.A., & Yuen, M.E., (2007) Polar bear(Ursus maritimus) hearing measured with auditory evoked potentials. Journal of Experimental Biology, 210, 1116-1122
  1. Nachtigall, P.E. Recent directions in Odontocete cetacean hearing.(2008) Bioacoustics, 17, 82-85.
  1. Nachtigall, P.E., Reichmuth, C. and Schusterman, R.J. (2008) Healthy stranded animals and laboratory research . Marine Mammal Science  23, 746.
  2. Nachtigall, P.E. and Supin, A. Ya., (2008) A false killer whale adjusts its hearing when it echolocates. Journal of Experimental Biology, 211, 1714-1718
  3. Nachtigall, P.E., Reichmuth, C., and Schusterman, R.J. (2008) Healthy stranded animals and laboratory research. Marine Mammal Science, 24(3):746-746. Houser, D.S., Crocker, D.E., Reichmuth, C., Mulsow, J., and Finneran, J.J. (2008) Auditory evoked potentials in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Aquatic Mammals, 33:110-121.
  4. Nachtigall, P. E., Mooney T.A., Taylor K.A., Miller L.A., Rasmussen M. H., Akamatsu T., Teilman J., Linnenschmidt M., and Vikingsson G. A. (2008) Shipboard measurements of the hearing of the white-beaked dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. Journal of Experimental Biology 211, 642-647.
  1. Reichmuth, C., Mulsow, J., Finneran, J.J., Houser, D.S., and Supin, A. Ya. (2007) Measurement and response characteristics of auditory brainstem responses in pinnipeds. Aquatic Mammals, 33:132-150.
  1. Southall, B.L., Bowles, A.E., Ellison,W.T. Finneran, J.J., Gentry, R.L., Greene, C.R.Jr., Kastak, D., Ketten D.R., Miller J.H., Nachtigall, P.E., Richardson, W.J., Thomas, J.A., and Tyack, P.L. (2008) Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: initial scientific recommendations. Edited by: Paul Lepper, Ross Compton, Simon Dible, Trevor Guymer, Ed Harland, Simon Richards and Stephen Robinson.  Underwater Noise Measurement, Impact and Mitigation, 2008. Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics Conference on Underwater Noise Measurement, Impact and Mitigation.  Southampton, UK 14-15 October, 2008. Published by the Institute for Acoustics: St Albans, UK. Pages 13-16.
  1. Supin, A.Ya., Nachtigall, P.E., Pawloski, J.L., and Au, W.W.L. (2003) Evoked potential recording during echolocation in a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens).  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113(5), 2408-2411
  1. Supin, A. Ya., Nachtigall, P.E., Au. W.W.L. and Breese, M. (2004)  The interaction of outgoing echolocation pulses and echoes in the false killer whale’s auditory system: evoked potential study   Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 115(6) 3218-3225
  1. Supin, A. Ya., Nachtigall, P.E., Au, W.W.L, and Breese, M.  (2005)  Invariance of echo-responses to target strength and distance in an echolocating false killer whale: evoked potential study. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,117(6), 3928-3935
  1. Supin A.Ya, Nachtigall, P.E., and Breese, M. . (2006) Source level to sensation level ratio of transmitted biosonar pulses in an echolocating false killer whaleJournal of the Acoustical Society of America 120,(1) 518-526
  1. Supin A.Ya, Nachtigall, P.E., and Breese, M.  (2007)  Evoked-potential recovery during double click stimulation in a whale: A possibility of biosonar automatic gain control.  Journal of theAcoustical Society of America, 121, (1) 618-625
  1. Supin, A.Ya., Nachtigall, P.E. and Breese, M. (2008) Hearing sensitivity during target presence and absence while a whale echolocates. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123, 534-541
  1. Supin, A.Ya., Nachtigall, P.E. and Breese, M. (2008) Forward masking as a mechanism of automatic gain control in whale biosonar: a psychophysical study, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 124, 648-656.
  1. Supin, A. Ya., Nachtigall, P.E., and Breese, M. (2009) Forward masking based gain control in odontocete biosonar: an evoked-potential study. J Acous Soc Am
  1. Taylor, K.A., Nachtigall, P.E. Mooney, T.A., Supin, A. Ya., and Yuen, M.L. (2007) A portable system for the evaluation of the auditory capabilities of marine mammals. Aquatic Mammals 33.1, 93-99.
  1. Teilman J., L. Miller, T. Kirketerp, R. Kastelein, Madsen P.T., Nielsen B.K. and Au W.W. (2002), “Characteristics of echolocation signals used by a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) during target detection.” Aq. Mam. 28(3): 275-284
  1. Yuen, M.E., Nachtigall, P.E., and Supin, A.Ya., and Breese, M. (2005)  Behavioral and auditory evoked potential audiograms of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118 (4) 2688-2695
  1. Yuen, M.L., Nachtigall, P.E., Breese, M. and Vlachos, S. (2007) The perception of complex  tones by a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)   Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121, 1768-1774

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